Methamphetamine and morphine effects on the body

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Drug use brings a lot of side effects on the body. They have a wide range of direct and indirect, short and long-term effects. The side effects are usually determined by the drug used, a person’s health, how much the same is taken, how the drugs are used and other factors. The short terms effects of the drug use may range from blood pressure, heart rate, wakefulness, appetite, overdose, stroke, psychosis and even death. The effects may be as a result of just single or multiple uses of the drugs.  On the other hand, the long-term side effect may range from mental illness, cancer, lung disease, hepatitis and many others. Most of the severe effect of drug use is the addiction which is a brain disorder that significantly affects the mental functioning. The change in brain functioning affects how people conduct their daily activities, normal pleasures, their ability to learn, control their emotions and remember things. Despite the negative side effects, many people find it difficult to stop taking the drugs due to the altering of the brain and mental functioning. The main indirect effect is on the unborn children or families who may suffer the outcome of the negative impacts such as due to violence or even death of the loved ones. 

As the number of those using drugs increase, the abuse rate is significantly rising. According to the UN’s drug report in 2016, the positive drug test has increased by 47% with those believed to use illicit drugs hitting 1 million (Meier, 45). Addiction has ranged from the use of painkillers to illicit drugs such as heroin which has significantly affected the health of the nationals.

II. Oral statistic of people who had drugs

One experiment was carried out focused on gathering information on the use of drugs and general health. The objective was to assess the oral health of those using illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, others and comparing to the status of those who do not use these substances. The experiment was applied to 35 drug users who were able to provide data on demographic factors, use of drugs and the general health (Sordi, 1). The same was followed by a clinical assessment of oral health which was used for collecting data on mucosal lesions, salivary flow rate, missing and filled teeth index as well as decay.  The results showed that, in the experimental group, the percentage of males added up to 91.43% while alcoholics composed of 42.85% with 80% were smokers (Sordi, 5). The research showed that cocaine was the most used drug at (77.15%), marijuana stood at (68.6%), and finally crack at (51.4%) (Sordi, 6). The oral clinical assessment showed that there was a detection of mucosal alterations but there was no diagnosis of oral cancer and malignant disorders. The DMFT index was 9.8 and that of SFR being 60% which is a significant decline.  Compared to the control groups, the oral lesions (p = 0.0488) ), SFR (31.4%; p = 0.0308), were higher for the experimental groups (Sordi, 6). On the other hand, the DMFT index (p = 0.0148) was higher for the control group than the experimental group. From the results, it is evident that most of the illicit substance users are mostly male who have high drinking habits and smoking compared to female. On the oral clinical assessment, those involved in illicit drug use are at high risk of increased mucosal lesions and reduced SFR compared to the control group but less relation to potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer.

III. Methamphetamine and morphine effect on the body

Methamphetamine was first marketed as a bronchodilator and highly synthesized in the early 20th century. The same was later misused for purposes such as wakefulness and dieting. The users of the same were presented in the emergency departments who were recorded to have chest pains, traumatic injury, stroke, skin infection as well as the mental status change. According to the national survey of drug use and health, the use of the drugs has significantly increased worldwide as domestically, hence their effect. Over time, the methamphetamine has become one of the key risk factors of cardiac attacks with the same expected to rise due to the increased use of the same.  A two-year clinical data was reviewed on a research focused on investigating the difference between those who use methamphetamine and develop heart failure and those who do not. The key objective of the research is to determine whether there is a predictive factor of developing heart failure due to the use of methamphetamine. The two-year clinical data showed that there were a total of 113,015 patients who were 18 years and above who visited the emergency department. Based on the toxicology screen, 4407 patients were found to be positive of methamphetamine use. Among this number, using the BNP testing, 714 were screened for heart failure (Richards, 1426). Among the methamphetamine-positive patients, for those with abnormal BNP, there was a tendency of male gender and higher age. Height, weight and BMI never differed in the methamphetamine patients with abnormal and normal BNP but the proportion was higher for white than black patients. Hence, from the results, the methamphetamine-positive patients have a higher prevalence rate to a higher heart attack. The users who are at a higher rate of experiencing the attack are male, white, older, have higher respiratory, heart and Creatinine rates and are also former smokers. Pathophysiological and toxicological mechanisms can explain the association between heart failure and methamphetamine. The mechanisms which induce the brain change include basal ganglia, orbitofrontal cortex and caudate putamen. Hence, it is evident drugs such as methamphetamine brings a lot of side effects on the body such as heart failure and change in the brain functioning (Richards, 1423).

Morphine, on the other hand, is a key drug which has a higher potential for abuse since it is an opiate narcotic painkiller (Hammami-Abrand et al…, 164). The medicine is usually a great option for pain but when used inappropriately, it is usually a hold for users and they may be difficult for them to escape. There are two main side effects of morphine to include dependency and withdrawal. With the increased use of morphine, the patient is likely to develop a dependency on the same which makes one at high risk of cardiac arrest and damage of vital organ system. Continuous consumption increases the likelihood of thought consumption leading one to abandon their interest and responsibilities. Morphine is also likely to have an effect on the withdrawal process which is known as detoxification. The side effects associated with the withdrawal include irritability, running nose, extreme drug caving, sweating, anxiety and cramping. To assess this effect, an experiment was done on adult male wasters which were reared for fourteen days while getting a bi-weekly. The rats were reared in EE and SE during the morphine dependence development and withdrawal (Hammami-Abrand et al…, 169). They were tested for memory, spatial learning, withdrawal behaviour, and grooming behaviour. The results showed that in morphine-dependent patients, EE can increase the partial impatient of memory retention. The same also reduces the withdrawal signs and grooming behaviours. Hence, it is evident that environmental enrichment such as intellectual, social and physical can be the key strategy for drug addiction treatment in clinics.

IV. Drug abuse

According to neurorobotic researches, drug abuse and addiction have become one of the prominent concerns in public health. In the USA, a total of 4.5 million are dependent on the same with 23.9 million people believed to use the drugs which are illicit. Despite the high number of drugs and addiction, there are very few pharmacological therapies which specialize on the same. The key drug use and addictions impact are on the brain neurotransmissions and on other health effects such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Kobeissy, 39).

Methamphetamine is one of the most abused drugs worldwide. The estimated number of those who use the drug in the US is 440,000 abusers. There is sensitization from the METH exposure which is a result of chronically altered neuronal plasticity. The METH abuse negative consequence includes the destruction of dopaminergic neurons. The high use of METH usually has serious health problems such as fatal seizures, hyperthermia, cerebrovascular hemorrhages as well as death (Kobeissy, 41).  The withdrawal symptoms of METH include psychosis, psychomotor dysfunctions and depression. METH is as well associated with neuropsychiatric consequences to include poor decision making, motor skills, memory problems, attention deficit which is likely to be associated with the dopaminergic fronto-striato-cortical neurons destruction. It is also believed to be one of the key potent chemical substances which may have a long-term effect the fetal and brain development through crossing the placental and blood-brain barrier.

Cocaine is one of the illicit chemical substances which have a very addictive substance. Research shows that more than 1.6 million people in the US are using cocaine with the demographic statistics including those who are 12years and above. Environmental and genetic factors are key in influencing the intricate behaviour as well as cocaine misuse which reflects the vulnerability of the same (Kobeissy, 4). Cocaine misuse leads to a chronic mental disorder which leads to compulsive drug consumption without caring about the consequences. Some of the key causes of the negative side effects include oxidative metabolites and biochemical pathways which keep urging one to keep taking the drug. There are several behavioural testing to include conditioned place preference which is essential in assessing different psychoactive drug. The method entails placing an animal and certain environment which is accompanied by the drug administration. In most cases, taking cocaine is followed by intense high which is followed by edginess, depression and craving for more. Cocaine also leads to increased heart rate, convulsions and muscles spasms. Cocaine abuse increases the risk of stroke, heart failure, breathing problem and even death. Prolonged use of the drug leads to sleep deprivation as well as appetite loss. Long-term use may also lead to hallucination and psychotic experience. People who are addicted to the drug are depressed with the thought of where they will get the same and they lose life interests. They may even commit murder focused on getting the drug. Depression due to cocaine use is one of the key causes of suicides in the US due to the loss of life interests. 

V. Conclusion

Despite the drugs been manufactured for medication and to improve people’s health conditions, they have significantly led to deaths. According to the UN reports, the drug-related deaths have doubled. According to the UN reports, an approximate of 200,000 people die worldwide as a result of drug abuse. One of the key causes of death is the drug abuse side effects such as heart attacks, respiratory problems, cancer, hepatitis, oral problems, and even brain problems. Secondly, drugs lead to addiction which may cause addicts to involve themselves in crime focused on financing their drug habits. As a result of their involvement in crimes, they may end up being murdered by the police or the members of the community. Suicides are another way through which the drug addicts experience deaths. High reliance on the drug leads to depression as the addicts think of where to get money to cater for the substance. Depression may lead to suicides since the addicts may have lost life interest and the lack of funds for the substance may significantly affect them. Hence, despite the drugs been manufactured for medication, drug-related deaths are one of the key calamities worldwide.  Despite the increased effects of the same, there are very few therapies which are focused on treating the patients.

Work Cited

Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo, and Hossein Miladi-Gorji. "Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and spatial cognitive deficits in morphine-dependent and-withdrawn rats." Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology 95.2 (2016): 163-169.

Richards, John R., et al. "Methamphetamine use and heart failure: Prevalence, risk factors, and predictors." The American journal of emergency medicine (2018).

Sordi, Mariane Beatriz, et al. "Oral health assessment for users of marijuana and cocaine/crack substances." Brazilian oral research 31 (2017).

Kobeissy, Firas, et al. "Recent updates on drug abuse analyzed by neuroproteomics studies: Cocaine, Methamphetamine and MDMA." Translational Proteomics 3 (2014): 38-52.

Meier, Kenneth J. The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy. Routledge, 2016.

August 21, 2023




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