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Opioids are medications that work in the nervous system to alleviate discomfort. Prolonged use and neglect can lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Opioids are available in tablet, liquid, and capsule forms (Brennan 14). The use of prescription medications has the potential to cause the user to become hooked, diverted, and medicated. Such neglect is associated with a rise in costs as a result of inappropriate use of healthcare. Establishing methods of reducing the risk of addiction and violence can improve health care and reduce costs to patients. This paper presents the causes, effects, and possible solutions towards handling the opioid problem.
Causes of Opioid

In scenarios where there are continued use opioids above the prescription of a doctor, even if to proceed with the minimization of pain or enjoyment of the euphoric type of feelings, it stand a chance in marking the start of stages of an opiate type of addiction. The addiction in this case tolerance towards the development and at last resulting into dependence, where an individual depends on drug for the prevention of the symptoms of withdrawal (Brennan 17). Regardless of the increment in the use of painkillers, there have been notable changes in the extents of pain noted in the world, especially in the US. In this regard, it has generated into opposing medical views, where some are in agreement that opioids are effective in handling pain brought as a result of cancer.

Effects of Opioid

The side effects associated with opioids may entail the itchiness, aspects of sedation, repiration problems, instance of constipation and euphoria as well. Tolerance and the aspect of dependence will tend to be continuous with respect to use thus needing increment in doses and the withdrawal symptom after abrupt discontinuation. The euphoria aids in the attraction of the recreational application and frequency, escalating type of recreation application of opioids thus leading to addiction. An aspect of overdose or the continued use with other depressant types of drugs often leads to death because of the depression that takes place in the respiratory.

Opioids function by facilitating the bondage towards the opioid types of receptors that are primarily found within the central and periphery of nervous type of system as well as the gastrointestinal tract (Nunes 3).The receptors aid in the mediation of the psychoactive and the somatic effects associated with the opioids. The drugs associated with the opioids towards such as the instances of partial type of agonists such as anti-diarhea and dug loperimidead antagonist such as the naloxegeol for the oppioid induced type of consitipatin that do not result into the barriers within the brain but on the hand stands a chance in the displacement of other opiodis against binding with the receptors.

Due to the reputation of the opioid types of drugs with respect to addiction and overdose, most are managed by certain substances. In the year 2013 close to forty million persons used opiodis illegally all over the world where the age of these users ranged between fifteen to sixty five years (Nunes 5). In the year 2011, an approximation of 4 million persons in the US made use of opioids in a recreational manner or depended on them. By the year 2015, increment in the rates of recreation application and the aspect of addiction became the main causes of over-prescription of the medications associated with opioid and cheap illicit heroin case. On the other hand, fears concerning the over prescription, exaggeration of the side effects and the addiction associated with opioids have all been accused for the understatement during incidences of pain.

Solution towards opioid effects

Educating Physicians and Patients

A detailed approach towards the reduction of risks is the education to the physicians on the need for adhering to system of prescription. A system defining the precautions with respect to the universal pain has been suggested and also given recommendation for the physicians when it comes to the minimization of the risk due to the abuse of opioid by the patients while at the same time giving an opportunity to t he physicians to aid in the minimization of pain (Jones, Peter G. Lurie, and Douglas p.400). The approach in this case relies on the detailed earlier assessment of the patient and regular monitoring of the patients identified as the ipioids. Since safe prescription of opioids assists not only in the public health demand but again plays a significant role on influencing the cost of healthcare. However, prayers on their side may also come with benefits that include the promotion of the universally based precautions. A the same tine, prayers may assist in enhancing this approach through provision to the physicians who have been registered in their performance goals that come with educational form training nor programs touching on them.

Use of Prescription Monitoring Programs

Programs on prescription monitoring entail the data systems of collection that dictate the total number of who give the prescription of opiodis for every patient and the quantity of pharmacies that dispose of these money (Ahmed N., et al 263). The aspect of prescription monitoring based programs is the collection of information from the prescrber, pharmacy, of the product name, race, color and many other for description

Preventing Inappropriate Prescribing and Medical Errors

A major aspect with respect to the immunization of risk is the reduction of a relevant and has medical flaws such as the increment (Ahmed N., et al 264). The selection of a partner involves untrue type of extended release, incorrect age. Such measures should not be just for prosecution of the prescribers but again offering education to then abusers who committed who are well behaved thus leading to the practices that that clear definition to the users The purpose of such measures should not be to prosecute prescribers (unless, of course, unlawful

Referral to Pain Specialists

Supporting the referrals towards the multidisciplinary management of pain initiatives and the resources referral sources towards addiction specialists are the other alterative. Others include the complete re ambient routine tests of drugs and referral such as the routine drag cases of tests on as being reference.


Most approaches are their several stages of implementing them in assisting in the reduction of the incidences associated with the misuse of opioid, its abuse, prescription and diversion as well. In each measure, health based plans, the employing firm and other major players need to consider the following;

Feasibility of implementation of the measure

Implementation cost against the desire to save

Added burden on the system of health care that the measure establishes

Possible negative impacts of desired means of treating pain

The impact created from the misuse, abuse and concern types of opioid associate the medications

Hence from the above, recommendations and policies need to be built on consensus types of decisions across several stakeholders. The effectiveness of the programs must undergo evaluation and adapted for optimal reduction of prescription opioid abuse and diversion.

Works Cited

Brennan, Michael J. "The effect of opioid therapy on endocrine function." The American journal of medicine 126.3 (2013): S12-S18.

Hassan, Ahmed N., et al. "The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on the risk of developing prescription opioid use disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III." Drug & Alcohol Dependence 179 (2017): 260-266.

Jones, Christopher M., Peter G. Lurie, and Douglas C. Throckmorton. "Effect of US Drug Enforcement Administration’s rescheduling of hydrocodone combination analgesic products on opioid analgesic prescribing." JAMA internal medicine 176.3 (2016): 399-402.

Nunes, Edward V., et al. "Relapse to opioid use disorder after inpatient treatment: Protective effect of injection naltrexone." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (2017).

August 09, 2021


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Pain Nervous System Drugs

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