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The distinction is noted in the population as a end result of the process that take place in the crossing over and impartial assortment in the meiosis process. Genetic materials are exchanged between two homologous chromosomes in prophase I. After that, the chromosome pairs will randomly align in the metaphase I. In the aligning process, each chromosome pair will align with some other pair with different genetic composition than developing independently main to a difference in the population.
In a stressful condition, like famine, sexual replica will lead to the production of offspring who are genetically diversified that will cope with the hostility and be growing their chances of surviving with the environmental changes, thus, reducing the likelihood of extinction (Hohmann & Mager, 2007).
The process takes place in the body cells.
The process takes place in the germ cells.
The occurrence of cytokinesis is once.
Cytokinesis occurs twice.
The daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes.
The number of chromosomes in the daughter cell is halved.
Crossing over does not occur.
Crossing over occurs where homologous chromosomes pair up.
Environmental conditions determine the appropriate means of reproduction by the yeast cells. When the environment is conducive for reproduction, the yeast cells reproduce asexually by means of budding, a process called mitosis. This cell division is asymmetrical and can be observed by the formation of budding. When the yeast is exposed to an environmentally stressful condition, they reproduce through meiosis to enhance their chances of survival. In this form of reproduction, the yeast cells undergoes through sporulation whereby haploid cells are produced and contained in tight ascus. These haploid cells are produced for each mating type. Once the environmental factors have improved and stress reduced, the yeast releases spores from its ascus, which then develop into haploid cells hence completing the reproduction cycle (Hoefnagels, 2015).
The stressful conditions suffered by yeast are the variation in temperature and acidity where they are found to do well in warm and moist places where there are enough oxygen supply and low carbon dioxide (Smukalla et al., 2008). These conditions will dictate the reproduction process taken by the yeast, i.e. to either being asexual or sexual reproduction. In the reproduction of yeast in the laboratory, the temperature at which yeast yields the best result can be controlled to its optimum while the acidity and carbon dioxide supply in the environment in which the reproduction is taking place can as well manage to minimize stress (Hofmann & Mager, 2007).
What is the optimum temperature at which yeast can reproduce without stress?
What is the proper acidic PH at which there will be a normal reproduction of yeast?
Temperature being one of the elements or conditions that stress yeast reproduction process, it should not be made to be too high so that yeast cells will be denatured and temperature should not also be too low that will make the cells inactive, thus, it needs to be regulated at its optimum. The acidic PH is also another factor that affects reproduction of the yeast cells; this, therefore, makes the acidic content not to be too low or too high. The following hypotheses can therefore be tested:
Ho: The suitable temperature for optimum reproduction of yeast cells is room temperature.
H1: The suitable temperature for optimum reproduction of yeast cells is not room temperature.
The experimental groups in this experiment will be temperature and acidic pH content of the environment while the control group is yeast cells. The dependent variable in the experiment is the yeast cells while independent variables are temperature and the acidic pH. Standardized variables in this experiment will be air, i.e. oxygen and carbon dioxide. The sample size of this experiment will be twelve treatments as the materials to be used glucose solution and left to ferment through the fermentation process.
Yeast is highly tolerant of the variations in environmental factors such as temperature and acidity. They thrive well in environments that are warm and moist, high in concentration of oxygen and with low carbon dioxide content. The time period for the experiment should last between 6 to 10 days however two weeks incubation period is sufficient and ideal. The samples should be placed in an open bowl containing solid growth media or in liquid broth such as potato dextrose agar or dextrose broth with adequate flow of air rich in oxygen. The environment should be made neutral or slightly acidic for best growth. The temperatures should be maintained between 5oC to 35oC.
(A) The temperature at which we shall observe more foams and fizzes on glucose surface will be the suitable temperature. This will be due to the stress-free environment of yeast cells.
(B) No production of foams or fizzes on the glucose surface at the optimum temperature. This can be a result of other factors, such as the acidic PH and much more.
The new species will be checked if it yields results in the optimum temperature like other yeast species by taking the experimental procedure as highlighted in task 7.
Hoefnagels, M. (2015). Biology: Concepts and Investigations (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Hohmann, S., & Mager, W. H. (Eds.).(2007). Yeast stress responses (Vol. 1).Springer Science & Business Media.
Smukalla, S., Caldara, M., Pochet, N., Beauvais, A., Guadagnini, S., Yan, C., ...& Fink, G. R. (2008). FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast. Cell, 135(4), 726-737.
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