Quality Management

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1.How would you describe design of experiments? (25–75 words) Design of experiments, commonly abbreviated as DOE, is a systematic method that is used to define the relationship between the factors that affect a certain process as well as the output of that same process.

2. What are the tools and methodologies used for quality management? List at least five.

Control charts

Pareto charts

Cause and effect diagrams


Flow charts

3. You are the project manager of a project which currently has some production flaws. Which analysis tool will allow you to determine the cause-and-effect of the production faults? (75–100 words)

The analysis tool that will help determine the cause and effect of production faults is the 5 whys. That is because, it helps in identifying the root causes of problems, helps determining the relations between other different main causes to the problem at hand and also makes it is easy to go through without doing a statistical analysis. It is most useful when the problem at hand involved human interactions and it also helps you identify if the problem at hand was caused by the machines or by humans. That is because, during production, humans can be used or machines can be used to complete the production process successfully.

4. What is a quality audit? (75–100 words)

A quality audit is the examination of the system that is done by an internal or at times external audit team or even a quality auditor systematically to help decide if the organization or company observes with the process quality system. It is a very important part of any organizations quality management system as well as being a very important key in the quality system standards. It helps organizations realize problems so that they can solve the problems before they damage the system.

5. What are the functions of a corporate knowledge base for storing and retrieving information? (25–75 words

When business owners or employee spend time searching through so many files to get information or look for misplaced files, it is very inefficient, unproductive and time wasting. When the information is stored in an effective indexing system, it decreases the chance for the information to get misplaced and saves a lot time as well as increases productivity and reduces anxiety and stress.

6. What documents might be generated as a result of QA activities? (25–75 words)

All documents that provide a quality guidelines are part of quality domain referred to as QA documents. They include, project quality plan (PQP, job procedures (JP), codes, and inspection test plan (ITP) amongst others.

7. What is the impact of QA on the project management plan? (50–75 words)

QA are activities as well as management processes that are done so that you can ensure that the products and services delivered by the project are of the quality level that as required. Therefore, they help in the project management plan to ensure that they deliver quality service in the way that it was supposed to be.

8. Who might need access to quality assurance outputs? (50–75 words)

The outputs of a quality assurance process comprises requested changes, recommended corrective actions and project management plan updates. Therefore, the person who may need access to the quality assurance outputs is the project manager because only the manager can request for changes to be made in the project and also recommend actions that can be used in the change as well give updates on the management plans.

9. At what point in the project life cycle does lessons learned and post-implementation reviews occur? (50–75 words)

The post implementation review occurs in the last phase of the project life cycle that is closure. That is because, in the last phase, that is where the project is analysed by its performance to determine whether the goals were met or not and a post implementation review is to be done after the project is completed to help determine the effectiveness of the project.

10. Describe the importance of the lessons learned document and why they should be collected and documented. (75–100 words)

Lessons learned documents helps bring together ideas as well as the insights that were gained during the project and that can be of use in future projects. When you document the lessons learned, it helps you in the future when you have the same problems and need help thus finds it easy to solve since you had documented the challenges and how to handle them and that, reduces anxiety, stress and gives an easy way of solving problems during projects since you have documented the challenges that you went through and how you handled them.

11. How are issues and responses reported? (25–75 words)

Issues can have a negative effect on the project. Therefore, it is important that immediately an issue is realized, it need to be addressed and solved by the parties involved before they create bigger problems for the project. Delays in solving issues can lead to failure of projects.

12. What is a post-implementation review and how can it be conducted? (50–75 words)

Post implementation review is often done after a project has been completed. I is done to ensure that the objectives of the project were fully met and it helps to determine if the project as effective, to ensure that the organization benefited from the project and also to learn lessons for the future projects.

13. Describe how to conduct a lessons learned exercise. (75–100 words)

To ensure that your organization continuously improves, it is important to learn lessons during project proves. Here are five steps to ensure that the organization learnt some lessons. Ensure that you schedule lesson learned meetings, ask the three questions on what went wrong, what went well and how to improve on what was good and lessen what went wrong. The third step is to elicit feedback in advance, fourth is to ensure that there is someone taking note of what is taking place and lastly review the lesson learn from previous projects anytime in a subsequent project.

14. How can you assess stakeholder’s needs? (75–100 words

The first process to assess a stakeholders needs is to identify the stakeholder, then assess how the stakeholders can be impacted. The next thing is to prioritize the stakeholder then identify the areas of conflict then prioritize, reconcile and then balance stakeholders and lastly align important needs of the stakeholders with the strategies actions.

15. What processes might be included in quality control? (50–75 words)

To ensure that specialized expertise are well applied in the operations, the quality control process is divided in to three process that reseparate from each other. The processes are incoming quality control abbreviated as IQC, in process quality control abbreviated as IPQC and lastly outgoing quality assurance abbreviated as OQA.

16. Describe the quality auditing processes and requirements. (75–100 words)

Quality auditing is a periodic, independent as well documented examination and also verification of records, activities and process to realize their conformity with the requirements needed for a quality standard. After the upgrade of ISO9000 series, the focus of audits shifted to measurements of actual effectiveness of the quality management system from purely procedural adherence and the results are being achieved through implementation of quality management systems. The process of quality auditing involves a proper auditing of the system, process, products and also the auditing of the compliances.

17. What methods could be considered to conduct continuous improvement activities? List six.


The PCDA cycle


Gemba walks

Value stream mapping

The 5 whys

18. List at least four of the project specification documents where quality can be defined.

Introduction of the project

Site user roles

Success criteria

Project timeline

19. In defining the quality management plan, what information should be documented? Give four examples.

A quality management plan is an approved document that defines the way in which the project will be monitored, controlled and also executed. The information that should be documented include subsidiary management plans, baselines, smart project objectives and project costs amongst others.

20. What are quality standards and what is their place in the project life cycle? (75–100 words)

Quality standards are a formalized systems that documents procedures, responsibilities and processes that help in achieving quality objectives. When gathering requirements needed for a project, a manager should go beyond just specifying what they are developing and the time in which it will be delivered. They should also plan for the measures that are put in place to ensure that they deliver the end product. The plans are executed throughout the lifecycle of the project by testing, inspecting and also walk through amongst others.

Project 1

Based on the scenario provided:

1. Complete a quality management plan.

Quality management plan template:

The following is a brief explanation of each of the components of the quality management plan.


The quality management plan identifies these key components:

Objects of quality review

Quality measure

Quality evaluation methods

Project deliverables

Deliverable quality standards

Completeness and correctness criteria

Quality control activities

Project processes

Process quality standards

Stakeholder expectations

Quality assurance activities


Project deliverables

and processes

The major deliverables and processes of the project are a topic of a quality reviews

Deliverable quality standards and criteria

The quality criteria which is the measure, it determines the successful results for a deliverables

Process quality standards and stakeholders expectations

The quality standards act as a measure to a correct work process follow-up

Stakeholders describes when the project is correct and effective

Quality control activities

For deliverables to meet the defined quality criterion, the quality control must monitor and prove these deliverables

Quality assurance activities

They should be followed for effective deliverables

Project deliverables and processes

The key project deliverables and processes subject to quality review.

The project deliverables and processes are development of curriculum which takes a duration of 420 hour course.

There is development of teaching and support materials; it entails 14 units of competency

, there is development of several assessment tools,  strategy development to facilitate evaluation of course and review

Deliverable quality standards

The quality standards that are the measures used to determine a successful outcome for a deliverable.

Completeness and correctness criteria

The completeness and correctness criteria describe when each deliverable is complete and correct as defined by the customer. Deliverables are evaluated against these criteria before they are formally approved.

Process quality standards

The quality standards that are the measures used to determine if project work processes are being followed.

Stakeholder expectations

Stakeholder expectations describe when a project process is effective as defined by the project stakeholders. An example is the expectation to be regularly informed monthly of project status.

Quality control activities

The quality control activities that monitor and verify that the project deliverables meet defined quality standards.

Quality assurance activities

The quality assurance activities that monitor and verify that the processes used to manage and create the deliverables are followed and are effective.

Quality management objectives

The following are the quality objectives of the project that reflect the overall intentions to be applied with regard to quality throughout the project.

The project is aiming at providing the authorised officers with training in relation to customer relations, communication skills.

The programme fosters training officers who are able work in a culturally diverse culture. The programme aims at partnering with the government department which is responsible for public transport to network the project by issuing a Request for Tender (RFT), opening channels for high bidders from suitably qualified organisations, and incorporating expertise and experienced Registered Training Organisations (RTOs).

Pilot test for the developed teaching materials.

Project quality control

The focus of quality control is on the deliverables of the project. Quality control monitors project deliverables to verify that the deliverables are of acceptable quality and are complete and correct.

The following table identifies:

the major deliverables of the project that will be tested for satisfactory quality level

the quality standards and the correctness and completeness criteria established for the project deliverable; included are any organisational standards that need to be followed

the quality control activities that will be executed to monitor the quality of the deliverables

how often or when the quality control activity will be performed


Deliverable quality standards/ completeness and correctness criteria

Quality control activity

Frequency/ interval

Developing curriculum

Project management

Configuration management


Project quality assurance

The focus of quality assurance is on the processes used in the project. Quality assurance ensures that project processes are used effectively to produce quality project deliverables.

The project quality assurance entails a project process which subjects to quality assurance.

It covers the process quality criteria and stakeholder expectations to make the project a complete process.

Additionally, there are quality assurance activities, for instance, there is quality audit and reviews which must be executed to ensure the project processes are appropriately followed.

Project quality assurance

The focus of quality assurance is on the processes used in the project. Quality assurance ensures that project processes are used effectively to produce quality project deliverables.

Project process

Process quality standards/ stakeholder expectations

Quality assurance activity

Frequency/ interval

Course development

Stakeholders involvement

in the design and development of the project

Review by the working groups

420 hours

Issuance of a Request for Tender

Assigning tasks, deadlines for the deliverables

Review of roles, responsibilities, operations, and functions of the authorised officers

6 months

Review, monitor and control of the project’s activities

Development in the domain of curriculum development for high quality

Recommendations for improvement measures

The project coordinator supervises the activity

3 months

Decision making levels

Measures for improvement

Assigning tasks

Project manager supervising the project

Identify any existing preferred training materials.

1 month

conflict resolution procedures



Audit by the project’s committee

Supervised by the project coordinators (stakeholders)

6 six months

Quality team roles and responsibilities

Identifies the quality-related responsibilities of the project team and list specific quality responsibilities.

Project team role

Assigned resource

Quality control and quality assurance responsibilities

Quality tools

List the tools to be used to support quality management implementation and the purpose or use of the tool.

Tool name

Tool purpose/ use

Quality Management Templates

Used to support the writing of authorised officers training program Plan

SWOT analysis templates

Used in carrying out curriculum development SWOT analysis.


Shows a pattern that falls within a typical process conditions.

Project’s web site

This informs about any activity and the outcomes of the project

Communication tools

These tools are used in facilitation of communication among the project partners and the training officers about the quality control and quality declaration issue.

Quality control and assurance problem reporting plan

A quality assurance and quality control helps evaluate and also modify the procedures of an organization so that they can make sure that they provide the results that they really wanted. A quality insurance plan includes the structure of the organization, the details of each and every employee as well as the qualifications the employees need to have so that they can fulfil their responsibilities.

Quality Control Log

Exception ID Number

Review Date

Deliverable Reviewed



Resolution Date

Quality Assurance Log

Exception ID Number

Review Date

Process Reviewed



Resolution Date

2. Complete the quality control review.

Quality control review template:

Control Quality Log

Document all information used to determine quality control for project deliverables.

Exception ID number

Review date

Deliverable reviewed



Resolution date

1. Enter the Exception ID number that is a unique identifier into the control quality log table.

2. Enter the review date that indicates the review date of the project deliverables against the quality measure.

3. Enter the deliverable reviewed that cross-references the deliverable from the quality control table.

4. Enter the findings that describe the result of the measuring of the project deliverable against the quality measure for that deliverable.

5. Enter the resolution that describes the action taken to mediate the findings.

6. Enter the resolution date that indicates the date the resolution was closed.

3. Develop a list of questions that should be asked when determining quality assurance.

While determining the quality assurance, several questions should be asked to ensure that the project and the program has a proper procedure and process for quality assurance. For instance, the project about training authorised officers, and issuance of ticket to inspectorolitan public transport system must develop questions as follows;

How high is the quality of training and design given and received by the authorized officers?

How can one know about the quality?

Can the quality of training be improved? If yes how?

What testing tools do they use and why?

What does the faculty of public transport act in response to the values of this education and research?

What are some of the recommendations to be made in case of any needed intervention and developments?

What are some of the benchmarks and benchmarking the department of public transport operates on?

4. Develop a checklist for managing project quality that could be used on any type of project.

Quality checklist

Project:                                                                                                                          date:


Quality item





Do the project has an approved quality management plans?

If it has approved management plan, is it reviewed by stakeholders?

Does every stakeholder have an access to the quality management plan?

Does it have a consistency with the overall plan?

Has the stakeholders agreed on, reviewed, and establish the product quality metrics

If yes, has the process been agreed upon and reviewed?

Have the stakeholders agreed upon collection mechanisms of metrics?

Are all metrics measurable, reportable, or countable?

Has the project quality manager been assigned?

Does the project manager know his/her role as related to quality acceptance?


This project involves the design and development of a program to train authorised officers, or ticket inspectorolitan public transport system.

The aim of the program will be to provide authorised officers with training in customer relations, communication skills and working in a culturally diverse culture. The government department responsible for public transport has issued a Request for Tender (RFT), inviting bids from suitably qualified organisations, including Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) with expertise and experience in community service and public service training.

The following RFT details, issued by the government department responsible for public transport, provide an outline of what will be expected of the successful tenderer.


In response to the release of a Parliamentary Law Reform Committee Report, the Minister for Transport, commissioned an independent and comprehensive review of the role, responsibilities, operations and functions (including the training) of authorised officers. The government and the public transport providers have agreed to use the national training framework as the basis for all future training activity.

An agreement was reached to adopt a competency-based approach for authorised officers training. Stakeholders have identified the particular competencies that are to be used, the structure and content of the training program together with the qualifications to be awarded on successful completion of the total training program.

The course structure consists of three stages:

Course development.

Production of assessment instruments.

Maintenance of a nationally accredited course.

Stage one has been identified as requiring a full-time training effort, with stages two and three being interspersed notionally over an 18 month to two year period involving both on- and off-job training and assessment.


In consultation and agreement with stakeholders, develop a curriculum, teaching materials, assessment tools and a maintenance strategy for an authorised officers training program. A proposed framework is included that lists the proposed tasks, actions and outcomes that are required to be completed to meet the requirements of this tender.

Key Deliverables:

development of curriculum for a 420 hour course

production of teaching and support materials for 14 units of competency

development of a range of assessment tools

development of a strategy that will facilitate course evaluation, review and maintenance

Contractor’s Proposal

The proposal submitted by the contractor should detail the following:

the contractors understanding of the scope and purpose of the assignment and of the key issues which will need to be addressed in its conduct

the deliverables from the contractor

the name/s and relevant experience of the contractor

the total estimated cost for each stage plus overall cost to deliver the project

the availability of the nominated contractor and the potential commencement date

the nature of any information and/or support expected from the department

Proposals will be evaluated on the basis of the following criteria:

understanding of the tasks/ appropriateness of the proposed approach/ methodology

demonstrated expert knowledge and skills in training program development

relevant experience of the contractor in training program development

extensive national and international knowledge of best practices in the training development field

fee rates and estimated total cost for each stage plus overall costs for the project

Project Duration

Appointment will be considered initially for a period of up to three months. The contract management and administration will be undertaken by the Franchise Relationships Branch of the Public Transport Division.

Contractor Agreement

The contractor will be expected to indicate their willingness to execute the standard agreement for the purchase of services. Any proposed departures from these standard conditions are to be identified in the tenderer’s response to the contractor’s proposal.


Payment will be based on total cost for the project. Milestone payments will be made for each stage completed.

Intellectual Property

Material created is department’s property. The ownership of all intellectual property and all information created as a result of the provision of services shall vest in the department.

The successful tenderer was a business development unit of a local RTO who proposed a budget of $240,000 for an 18 month project.

An extract from their initial planning documents:

Planning stage one: Prepare course proposal

Map existing units of competency from Certificate III in Transport and Distribution (Rail Operations) to the public transport job analysis and develop draft content clusters.

Identify and collate areas of underpinning knowledge and skill to be included.

Meet with government department to:

Clarify situation regarding the development of new units.

Identify workplace documents to be used as training materials.

Identify any existing preferred training materials.

Identify key stakeholders and contact personnel.

Planning stage two: Scope definition

Key tasks for work breakdown schedule:

Document agreed objectives and deliverables.

Finalise timelines and work plans.

Develop scope management plan.

Establish administrative systems.

Confirm and brief project team.

Planning stage three: Establish quality protocols and implementation parameters

Set up project steering committee.

Convene first meeting to sign off content clusters and learning sequences.

PSG to review WBS, finalise and sign off.

October 24, 2023



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