Schizoid personality

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When the term personality is used, it refers to the ingrained behavior patterns through which an individual observes, thinks about, and reacts to himself as well as the world. Personality disorder, on the other hand, is a distinctive pattern of inner behavior and experience that deviates from the standards of a person's society, and is sufficiently pervasive and inflexible in either adolescence or adulthood that it occasionally causes insignificant damage in internal suffering (Cimpan & Taran, 2012). Personality disorders not only isolate the person but also cause episodes of maladaptive behavior. The essay will go into greater detail on schizoid personality disorder, its symptoms, and the characteristics of someone who has been diagnosed.  SPD is a series of indifference to a social relationship that has a limited range of experience and emotional countenance. By early adulthood, the condition manifests itself through psychological and social detachments which stop people from experiencing excellent and close relationships. Individuals who have this disorder usually have a healthy life but are unable to achieve meaningful relationships with others. Typically, this person is always lonely and is prone to too much daydreaming as well as being attached to animals (Cimpan & Taran, 2012). Such individuals usually do well in solitary jobs that others find intolerable. The evidence that indicates the beginning of this disorder starts with schizophrenia or just the mild form of the schizoid disorder. Nevertheless, such persons are in touch with the reality of life unless schizophrenia develops.


Schizoid personality disorder is a psychiatric nosological deformity that was developed by Spitzer in 1970 based on the characteristics analysis of mental disorders. Its entity is based on the observations of everyday behavioral characteristics of the relatives of people with schizophrenia (Bornstein, 2015). Its status is sometimes classified among the stems of personality disorders in a clinical or family approach of sporadic cases. The historical framework was meant to define the model of the multidimensional characteristics or schizoid personality disorder in a three-factor model. Therefore, the study of the schizotypal concept is now used to identify schizophrenia spectrum and the attributes of Schizoid personality disorder.


Individuals with these disorders are less attracted to few activities because they do not enjoy or desire close relationships with anyone. They also appear detached and aloof by avoiding social activities that involve getting more intimate with other people. These people also find little or no interest when it comes to sexual matters (Martens, 2010). Besides that, they don't like having close relationships with intermediate relatives or friends. When people with schizoid disorder are praised or criticized, they show emotional detachment, coldness or flattened affection, thus having very low moods.

A Public Figure that has Schizoid Personality Disorder

One person known for the invention of electricity - Albert Einstein - has been cited in a wide range of literature and studies as having schizotypal personality disorder. His son who was a prominent doctor was also diagnosed with schizophrenia (Haigh, 2009). As a child, Einstein was always found to be alone which he repeated obsessively till he reached seven years old. When he was old, he was known to be a notorious confused professor. However, despite the fact that he had intimate friends, he had numerous affairs and outspoken political characters but still had symptoms of Asperger syndrome. When someone has personality disorders, he or she tends to have rigid ways of behaving and thinking that differ from the norm, thus causing distress and hinder normal functioning. Individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder usually don't believe they have it, and so they rarely seek medical help. Lack of insight is what makes the treatment of this disease difficult. These conditions mostly develop early in life and usually affect the person's relationship. When one has this order, the person typically has extreme characters of personality disorder.

The Clusters of Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid personality disorder usually can be divided into three groups. Cluster A contains schizotypal, paranoid and schizoid disorders. Cluster B is composed of histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial characters, and Cluster C have dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Kalus & Siever, 2012). This section of the essay will deeply define and elaborate Schizoid disorder by giving examples of public figure that were diagnosed.

Cluster A

Schizoid personality disorder. Individuals diagnosed with this condition are usually super introverted. They rarely have the desire to have friends by choosing to isolate themselves. They mostly daydream; they are apathetic and have limited emotions. Such individuals are also never interested in sexual contacts (Cimpan & Taran, 2012). Suitable examples of public figures that had this disorder were Squidward from Sponge Bob and Dexter Morgan from Dexter (Haigh, 2009). Albert Einstein was also diagnosed with this condition because he was fitted with dyslexia, bipolar and language processing disorders and ADHD. The whole family was seen to be diagnosed with this disease. For instance, his mother had both schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. Likewise, Einstein's father was on medication because of OCD and mood disorders (Haigh, 2009). His older brother, who was semi-illiterate, was also diagnosed with bipolar and schizotypal personality disorders.

Schizotypal personality disorder is a condition that makes people extremely awkward and nerdy. They usually have magical thinking such as superstitious or paranormal beliefs. Often, they also have mannerism, speech and dress characters. These people voluntarily withdraw from other people just like in schizoid disorder (Miyake & Miyamoto, 2015). Suitable examples of people who were diagnosed with this condition are Doc Brown from the characters of the Big Bang theory and back to the future and Kramer from Seinfeld. Einstein also had schizotypal traits that enhanced to echolalia at the beginning of childhood. Usually, Einstein had the theory of mind that made him socially insensitive and inappropriate (Haigh 2009). During his youth, he was dreamy, distracted and frequently disheveled in his appearance.

Paranoid personality disorder. Individuals, who have this disorder, are always suspicious of what others do because they don't trust them. They still feel that everyone is after them, and so they get aggravated about minor things (Gopinath, 2013). A good example of public figures that had this disorder includes Adolf Hitler, Richard Nixon, Saddam Hussein, and Joseph Stalin (Haigh, 2009). When a husband is diagnosed with this condition, he usually tends to accuse his wife of cheating, and yet he is the one who is cheating. In this case, there is a difference between paranoid delusions and paranoid personality. For instance, claims of someone, who has paranoid delusions, are usually plausible. Therefore, paranoid delusion is a disconnection from reality while paranoid personality is a distortion from reality (Gopinath, 2013).

Cluster B

The borderline personality disorder. Individuals with this condition usually have tempers and drastic mood swings. Mostly they have poor impulse control that makes them abuse substances. In normal circumstances, these people may have self-mutilation or consider committing suicide during emotional outbursts, but turn out to be okay within a few minutes (Markowitz, 2015). These people also often display a defense mechanism whenever they think that people are good or bad. For instance, they may complement the doctor for being the best in the world or vice versa when the moods change. Good public figures that portray these characters include the Hulk and the stereotype teenager of the Drama Queen (Haigh, 2009).

Histrionic personality disorder: Most patients usually experience a childish Donna that is dramatic or theatrical. They are usually very extroverted, flirtatious and colorful. Mostly they have the will to act impulsively and also like to be the center of attraction by bringing up a sexual manner. They are always concerned with their looks by displaying the defense mechanism of regression. Good public figures include Paris Hilton, Madonna, and the majority of TV stars (Haigh, 2009).

Antisocial personality disorder. Individuals with this disorder are predators and psychopaths that exploit other people without feeling guilty. Most of the time, they are deceitful, exploitive and good at reading social clues, as well as appearing charming to others (Cain & Mulay, 2017). They don't like the well-being of others, and this makes them violate their rights. Moreover, these individuals have histories of committing crimes. Suitable examples include the Grinch, the Joker and serial killers (Haigh, 2009). They also don't confuse the antisocial personality with adjective personality. Therefore, when non-medical people refer people with this disorder as reclusive, they are referring to something close to schizoid personality. On the other hand, people who have the same symptoms, but are under 18 years, are known to have conduct disorders that usually progresses to antisocial personality when they reach 18 years.

Narcissistic personality disorder: These are people that have egotistical and vain sense of entailment. They have inflated but fragile self-image. Mostly they require recognition when they succeed, but lack patience and empathy for others (Roningstam, 2011). Often these individuals are preoccupied with prestige and power by exploiting others. However, they aim at doing things for recognition, unlike the antisocials who exploit others because they enjoy it. Good examples that portray such characters include Walter White from Breaking Bad, Gregory House, and Stephen Colbert, the actor (Haigh, 2009).

Cluster C

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Individuals with this disorder are extremely perfectionists to the point where it sometimes hinders their ability to complete their tasks. They are also very organized with schedules, lists, and small details. These people are usually over-devoted to their work, and never have time to take leisure time. Individuals with OCPD usually have interpersonal problems, as well as have problems with their academics and occupational success (Owens, 2012). They are usually upset when they are unable to control the environment around them. Good examples include Steve Jobs (Haigh, 2009). His intentions had unimportant details which were part of his success, but he found it difficult to work for those rules. View of thinking of individuals with OCPD is reasonable and beneficial. When they need help, they usually go to the healthcare professionals not because of how they think, but because of their interpersonal problems.

The avoidant personality disorder. Individuals with this disorder always desire to make friends, but usually get isolated because they are scared and insecure due to rejection and over-sensitivities brought by negative criticism (Bidani, 2014). Mostly they are shy people who have feelings of inadequacy. A good example of a public figure is Michael Jackson. He used to build his theme parks or tunnels so he could avoid the public. The second person is Ricky Williams who was once interviewed with his helmet all because he disliked interacting with the media (Haigh, 2009).

Dependent personality disorder. Patients usually have low self-esteem that makes them reliant on others, particularly on people who are close to them like parents and physicians (Rolston, 2017). Mostly they fear being abandoned and always want to be taken care of. They are always ready to surrender anything in their responsibilities and agree with what they are being told. They often display a regression ego defense. A good example of an individual with such disorder includes Buster from the film Arrested Development (Haigh 2009).


In most cases, the schizoid disorder is not treated by using medication, but if it's for short-term treatment, then medicine is prescribed. The best way of dealing with this disease is individual therapy because it is successfully known to have a long-term effect. It usually gives patients an outlet to change their false perception of friendship into an authentic relationship. As the patient-therapist bond grows, the client then begins to reveal imaginary terrors and association of dependency (Seligman, 2015). The primary purpose of doing therapy is to alleviate the pressing stressors or concerns within the patient's life. In this case, the cognitive restructuring will be very essential to eradicate types of clear and irrational thoughts that may be negatively influencing the behavior of the patient. This treatment plan is usually defined at the onset of treatment. When the patient has social consequence that is calamitous, he or she needs to receive comprehensive treatment to assist recovery, ameliorate symptoms and redress stigma. The therapy-based approaches like education and socialization theories, both positive and negative psychological status have been proven to regulate the schizoid condition. Cimpan and Taran (2012) found out how psychotherapy was affected by the symptoms of Cluster A personality disorders and discovered that about 8% had SPD. Moreover, they also realized that when therapies were done to the patients, there were significant improvements mainly to patients with the schizoid personality disorder.


Schizoid mental disorder, as elaborated in the essay, is a condition that has a lot of negative impacts. This disease is never known before someone reaches the age of 18 years, but shows signs of development even in the early years. Once acquired, the individual is seen to have a lot of social, behavioral, and performance problems. Famous people, as we have seen, have also been diagnosed with this condition. Since the causes of SPD are relatively unknown, there are a variety of environmental and biological factors that have been known to bring the implications. Nevertheless, because the research on this treatment is scarce, the best method is only through therapy because it is a mental condition. However, when combined with psychotherapy and treatment, it becomes beneficial.


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April 19, 2023

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