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The technique of cutting foreign DNA at specific locations in an organism and injecting the cleaved foreign DNA fragment collected into a vector is known as genetic engineering (GUPTA, 2008). The effect of injecting foreign DNA into another DNA is often referred to as recombinant DNA (GUPTA, 2008). The field of genetic engineering encompasses five diverse spectral fields, which include: fundamental research on gene structure and function, generation of useful proteins using novel methods. Furthermore, the field is concerned with the development of transgenic organisms, medical diagnosis and treatment, and, finally, genome analysis through DNA sequencing (Desmond, 2008). The introduction of genetic engineering has elicited a mixed reaction in the United States of America as opinion is divided down the middle on its application in the United States. Arguments are for and against its application as evident by its advantages and disadvantages depending on the side an individual or organization is convinced is best for the present and future of the Americans and the world. The United States continues to reap significant in line with the field of genetic engineering since it is the world's leading producer of genetically modified crops (Acosta, 2014). This paper, therefore, seeks to support one of the arguments by the scholars surrounding the genetic engineering issues.
Prominent scientist in the US led by The Center for Genetics and Society (CGS), have called on the temporary halt of the implementation of genetic modification of children and future generation in line with major development in genetic engineering and synthetic biology (Ryan, 2015). This is after they established the potential irreversible risks and monumental effects of the modification on humanity. Although they concur with the other scientist that still there are some benefits as alluded by Marcy Darnvosky, the executive director for Center for Genetics and Society during an interview on Al Jazeera that for example the Gene drive could be used to prevent the mosquito from spreading malaria (Ryan, 2015).
The single study syndrome has also emerged as the genetically modified proponents tend to cherry-pick single studies that are advocating for their pre-existing position (Gary & Cardineau, 2013), while failing to consider the most substantive issue of risk to the environment and human survival. This has continued to cause more confusion as clearly indicated in the labeling debate in the United States. According to an article in the Business Inside, of genetic procedures has been rated as the most drawbacks that may hunt genetic modification (Lewis, 2015). According to Lewis (2015), some genetic procedures are not necessary since they anticipate for a superior gene but can be preceded other genetic complication that may be fatal to the spacemen. In fact, Joy Larsen a president of the Society of Genetic Counselors acknowledges that there is no existing data to validate the safety and reliability of some procedures such as the use of CRISPR in human (Lewis, 2015). In that case, scientists may be causing complications and health issues which were not anticipated in the initial procedures.
According to Business Insider's report, genetic therapies have recorded high-profile tragedies that need not be encouraged (Lewis, 2015). Additionally, some of the procedures such as the use of CRISPR in the modification of genetic defects have proved to be unnecessary procedures. This is because some procedures such as the screening of diseases before pregnancy have provided remedies to genetic defects (Lewis, 2015). Another thought that does not necessitate the use of genetic engineering is the idea of designer babies which is as the result of germline editing. In a critical view of these entities, they may select advantageous traits, but also it can lead to assimilation of traits that are not medically necessary (Lewis, 2015). Another issue touches on the social instability of the society as the society may have unevenly distributed population due to society genetic crisis (Lewis, 2015).
Genetic engineering has been associated with good things such the improvement in the production. However, when a procedure does not guarantee safety to the society, then it is unfit and unnecessary to exist in the society. Genetic procedures, therefore, are unnecessary to the society due to their threats to human health and the environment.
Acosta, L. (2014, March). Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. Retrieved from Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/restrictions-on-gmos/usa.php
Desmond, S. (2008). An introduction to Genetic Engineering. NEW YORK: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
Gary, E., & Cardineau, A. (2013). The labeling debate in the United States. GM Crops and Food, 126-134.
GUPTA, T. (2008). MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. NEW DELHI: RAKESH KUMAR RASTOGI FOR RASTOGI PUBLICATION.
Lewis, T. (2015, December 4). There are really good reasons why we should — and shouldn't — genetically engineer human embryos. Retrieved from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/arguments-for-and-against-editing-human-embryos-2015-12?IR=T
Ryan, R. (2015, December 1). US scientists urge ban on human genetic modification. Retrieved from Aljazeera: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/11/scientists-urge-ban-human-genetic-modification-151130163522308.html
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