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The creation of audio components for the movie falls under the purview of sound design in the context of filmmaking. Therefore, a sound designer's duties include defining the sounds required for the story and storyline, providing background tones for audio elements as needed, and managing the recording, re-recording, editing, mixing, and sound-effects crews (Barsam and Monahan 367). Diegetic or nondiegetic sound is one of the paradigms used to describe the source of film sound. The former refers to sound that comes from a source within the film’s world while the latter refers to sound whose source is outside the film’s world (Barsam and Monahan 370). Sound can also be described as being on- screen or off-screen depending on the source. On- screen sound usually comes from a source that the viewer can see while off- screen sound originates from a source that we do not see. Off-screen sound can be diegetic or nondiegetic. The third convention of describing the source of sound in the film is internal versus external. Internal sound comes into being when sound in a film is assumed to be an expression of a character’s thoughts. External sound, on the other hand, originates from a place within the world of the story and we assume that characters in the movie world also hear it. Ambient sound differs from sound in that while its source is the background of the film setting, sound effects are artificially created to aid storytelling. Foley sounds are a type of sound effect that instead of being created, recorded, and edited into the movie, they are created and recorded simultaneously with the picture. Foley sounds are also unique as compared to sound effects which can be handpicked from a library of prerecorded sounds (Barsam and Monahan 375). Sound elucidates the spatial and temporal dimensions of a movie scene by intensifying the world created by visual elements in the scene. A sound bridge in a movie is a transition in sound editing that emphasizes the connection between different scenes.
Chapter 10: History
The stylistic movements in the history of film that had a major impact on its course were the silent period, French Avant- Garde filmmaking, German Expressionism, and Italian neorealism. In the late 1930s, the prevailing style was soft focus with the style enabling the creation of an illusion of perspective in films. Movies such as “Life of an American Fireman” and “The Great Train Robbery” which were both produced by Edwin S. Porter also had a lasting influence on filmmakers. This is due to the development of conventions of cinematic narrative which replaced the one- shot- one- scene editing (Barsam and Monahan 414). Each of the stylistic movements in the early 20th century was unique. While German expressionism set out to express feelings in the most direct and extreme fashion possible using extreme distortion and exaggeration, Soviet Montage was concerned with using a collision of elements to convey abstract ideas. Classical Hollywood style was obsessed with perfection in trying to make a cut look invisible while the New American Cinema is all about a depiction of recognizable actuality. Italian neorealism, on the other hand, was concerned with depicting life as accurately as possible in film. The French New Wave, in contrast, went from movies to life.
Chapter 11: Technology
The invention of the camera, especially the motion- picture camera, the processor, and the projector, played a major role in the development of movies. Film technology drove the first century of moviemaking mostly because it was the only option then. Film technology is advantageous especially when it comes to depth of field and exposure latitude. However, despite the apparent advantages, filmmaking using the technology is complex, time- consuming, and expensive. Film is also fragile and tends to break down with time. Digital technology, which is predominant in the modern day, is cheaper, more versatile, and easier to work with. It also uses less light and is preferable when it comes to film editing. Digital technology has, however, increased movie piracy. Some filmmakers hate digital technology due to an assertion that it lacks the authenticity associated with film technology. The preproduction phase in filmmaking is concerned with planning and preparing for the shooting regarding developing the script, and also acquiring rights to produce a story. Technical aspects such as studio space and scouting locations are also activities associated with this phase. Production is the actual shooting of the movie with the producer and the director working together. Production is usually a full day job for five days a week. Finally, post-production is all about editing the film, preparing the final print, and marketing and distribution (Barsam and Monahan 468).
Barsam, Richard, and Monahan, David. Looking at Movies (5th ed.). W.W. Norton & Company. 2015. EBook.
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