Staphylococcus Aureus Essay

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Scientific research shows many strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The distinguishing features of MRSA are in terms of its appearance and its genetical composition. It is a spherical gram-positive bacterium that is estimated to be around one micron in diameter. It does not compose spores and has no motion. They cluster to form a grape-like chain. MRSA causes several drug-resistant infections in human beings. Genetically, it develops from horizontal gene transfer and through natural selection. It creates resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics with elements of methicillin and oxacillin hence its naming. The bacterium is prevalent in crowded hospitals and healthcare settings, wherein such scenario, it is referred to as care-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Another type occurs in the wider community known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA).


The CDC report of June 7, 2017, through its official website and the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report on MRSA focus on the symptoms alongside the other dimensions of the bacteria (Pires et al., 2017). MRSA like other staph infections appears on the skin like swollen red bumps in the physical appearance of large pimples and insect bites. Features of the affected areas may include a feeling of warmth when touched, full of fluid or pus, and feeling of fever. The skin abruptly turns into deepened painful holes that need proper surgical treatment by draining. At times the infection remains on the skin, but there is a possibility that it may extend further into the body. It is very dangerous in this case because it can cause fatal infections in the bones’ around the joints, deep into the bloodstream and even in the heart valves and human lung. Everyone should be on the lookout for minor skin problems such as pimples, insect bites, deep and shallow cuts, and scrapes. If the appearance of wounds around the infected area accompanied by fever is noticed, then one is advised to see a doctor.


A variety of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria exist. They are commonly referred to as staph. Their area of development is commonly on the human skin or nose of the infected population. When it is still in its habitat, the bacteria is harmless until it gets into the body through cuts and wounds. Even at this point, the bacteria do nothing but cause minor skin illnesses in healthy humans. Again, according to CDCP, an approximated number of lower than two percent of the total population are carriers of the bacteria MRSA.

The bacteria result from the unnecessary use of antibiotics over a given period. Such antibiotics are often prescribed for colds, flu, and the viral infections. Whether the antibiotics are used appropriately or not they can cause such drug-resistant bacteria because they don’t destroy all the germs in the body. The germs that can survive an attack from the drugs administered would soon be able to resist other related antibiotics.

Risk factors

The risk factors are dependent on the two different settings of occurrence of MRSA otherwise known as strains. Risk factors for HA-MRSA are: it can attack the elderly and anyone with a weakened immune system, people with invasive medical devices are prone since such devices can be a pathway into one’s body for the bacteria MRSA, and people who are staying for a long time in the healthcare facilities like nursing homes (Leibler et al., 2017). It is a contagious bacteria hence carriers can spread it to others. CA-MRSA has risk factors such as participation in the social activities like games that encourage body contacts. Again, people who live in crowded and unsanitary conditions are likely to experience the effects of MRSA outbreaks. Same gender sex practices also encourage MRSA.

Possible complications

Total resistance to any common drugs or antibiotics is a threat to control of the spread of infections that in turn threatens the life of the victims. The particular body areas and organs affected by MRSA include the bloodstream, the human heart, bonny areas, joints, and lungs.


There are possible prevention methods for MRSA. In the health facilities, victims of infections are secluded from the rest to prevent contact. The caregivers wear protective gears for the people already under isolation (Morgan, Wenzel & Bearman, 2017). They are also advised to follow strict hand hygiene measures. Proper disinfection of the contaminated surfaces and laundry is recommended in the case of HA-MRSA. In the other case, simple safety hygiene measures like the proper washing of hands, keeping the wounds clean and protected, taking a shower after every athletic game, not sharing personal effects among others should be observed.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The medical doctors diagnose MSRA by initially conducting a check on a sample of nasal secretion and observing any sign of drug-resistant bacteria. The specimen is then transferred to the laboratory for further observation. It is placed in an incubator dish that encourages bacterial growth. The staph DNA is detected in a matter of 48 hours and if there is need for urgency, the measures can be taken to expedite the situation. Treatment depends on the responsiveness to antibiotics but in some cases, the antibiotics may not be applicable. The doctors may just find a way of draining the fluid caused by MSRA instead of treating the infection. For purposes of preparation, one can consult a family doctor in order to get a referral on basis of the organ attacked by the disease. If it is on the skin then one may need a dermatologist while the cardiologist may attend to the victim attacked in the heart.

Dos and don’ts for the patients

Make a complete list of a description of the symptoms, information of the initial medical conditions experienced, details of the medical condition of spouse or parent, previous medication and dietary supplements taken, and recommended and the possible questions one may need to ask from the doctor. Do not conceal any information from the doctor, no matter how private it is considered to be. Expect a physical examination and close examination of any skin related infection. The physician may prefer to take sample fluid from the infected area or skin lesion for lab testing.

Public Health Efforts and infection trends

In the United Kingdom, some new mathematical models describe the way in which loss of infection control can be done. This is a major milestone after prolonged effectiveness of screening and isolation. Late a ‘hunt and destroy’ procedure was implemented in which after successful isolation of the victims of MRSA, all staff members of all hospitals were taken through a course of eradication therapy that was successful (Johnson et al., 2014).  CDS again estimated that an approximate value of 1.7 million nose infections occurred in the US. Resulting in the death of 99,000 victims in 2002. MRSA alone was liable for the infection of eight percent of the population between January 2006 and October 2007 (Reagan et al., 2016). This problem was later extended to Britain with an estimate of between four percent to ten percent nosocomial infections in the health centers across the country. A global estimate of 2 billion people are carriers of S. aureus, among this around 53 million are suspected to be carrying MRSA. In the US nasal carriers are approximately 95 million, and among them, 2.5 million are nasal carriers of MRSA.


I recommend decolonization efforts through randomized clinical trials as a way to understand how to treat non-surgical wounds under colonization by MRSA, but they are not yet infected. Conducting sufficient studies on the whole process of diagnosing colonized wounds should be a priority since some of the medical agents may not have that professionalism. Again, proper hygiene is important to the prevention of all the types of MRSA. Toilets being a common vector for the infection, care should be taken by disinfecting them properly. Door hinges and handles, light switches, faucets and the likes should regularly be disinfected. Carpet washing, floor scrubbing should be done using dilute tee tree oil as a measure of proper disinfection. Spray disinfectants regularly and upholstery. During washing the use of laundry soap with tee tree oil is recommended and effective.             


Johnson, N. B., Hayes, L. D., Brown, K., Hoo, E. C., & Ethier, K. A. (2014). CDC National Health Report: leading causes of morbidity and mortality and associated behavioral risk and protective factors—United States, 2005–2013.

Leibler, J. H., León, C., Cardoso, L. J., Morris, J. C., Miller, N. S., Nguyen, D. D., & Gaeta, J. M. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors for MRSA nasal colonization among persons experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA. Journal of medical microbiology, 66(8), 1183-1188.

Morgan, D. J., Wenzel, R. P., & Bearman, G. (2017). Contact precautions for endemic MRSA and VRE: time to retire legal mandates. Jama, 318(4), 329-330.

Pires, D., de Kraker, M. E. A., Tartari, E., Abbas, M., & Pittet, D. (2017). ‘Fight Antibiotic Resistance—It’s in Your Hands’: Call From the World Health Organization for 5th May 2017. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(12), 1780-1783.

Reagan, J., Rohde, R. E., MITCHELL, A. H., Felkner, M., & Tille, P. (2016). The Legal Landscape: HAI Public Reporting in the United States. Clinical Laboratory Science.

August 04, 2023




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Bacteria Microbiology

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