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The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation agreed in December 1980 to designate the coastal plain within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as a study area. An assessment of its oil and gas growth potential was to be carried out. The Department of the Interior conducted an evaluation and recommended to Congress that the coastal plain be opened for oil and gas exploration and expansion. President Clinton vetoed the entire bill.
ANWR is located in Alaska's northeast corner. It's a 19-million-acre wilderness refuge that extends from the Beaufort Sea to the Yukon River. Because of its beauty, it is one of Alaska's most well-known wilderness areas. In 1960, it was designated as a wilderness, and it incorporates arctic tundra, boreal forests, wild rivers, the mountains of Brooks Range, the coastal plain also Alaska glaciers that are awe-inspiring. The wilderness is home to Inupiat Eskimo, birds, polar bears, wolves and much more.
In 1950, the measure to safeguard the area began. There was a concern for the loss wild places to growth as well as the atomic bomb’s destructive potential which was shown in the course of the Second World War. The administration of Eisenhower established the ANWR in 1960.
The continental divide splits the ANWR. The land that is located north of the divide in the arctic watershed is composed of massive treeless tundra. Rivers including the kongakut as well as the Canning form carved peaks of in glacier also flow coming from the Romanzof Mountains. A productive wetland exists acting as shorebirds home as well as waterfowl, where the rivers connect to the Arctic Ocean. There is a barrier island with ice along the Arctic coast. The Arctic refuge south-side is filled with Brooks Range tower limestone peaks that are above the Wind Rivers as well as the clear waters of the Sheenjek also Coleen. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge rests on a plate that is part of small continental fragment referred to Arctic Alaska microplate.
The coastal plain was estimated to have up to 17billion oil barrels as well as natural gas close to 34 trillion cubics by the US geological survey in 1980. The department of the interior of USA reported in 1987 that there are billions of oil barrels that have not been exposed in the area. Resources that are in-place range starting with 4.8 billion to 29.4 billion oil barrels at the high end. Currently, the country imports 50% of its oil. 18million oil barrels are consumed a day, and it is projected by the Energy Information Administration that this would increase to 25million barrels of oil a day in the coming 20 years. The oil imported costs 336 billion dollars a year. In the meantime, our domestic production is in decline. ANWR’s oil has been projected to be over 1.3 trillion dollars. Hundreds of millions could be saved in imports. (Teel 447-463).
I examined the history of ANWR as well as geological, biological, human, and economic resources analysis. I believe that the USA doesn’t have to drill because there is a development of oil from other sources with lower prices obviating the need for production causing an insignificant effect on the prices of oil and creation of jobs, whereas irreparably causing damage to the environment. Moreover, if the oil that is economically recoverable is found, it would make available slight extra energy security. The ecosystems intrusion is unjustifiable.
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Teel, Tara L., et al. "Evidence of biased processing of natural resource-related information: a study of attitudes toward drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge." Society and Natural Resources 19.5 (2006): 447-463
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