The Impact of Family Decision Making on Tourism Behavior and Attitudes

223 views 9 pages ~ 2425 words
Get a Custom Essay Writer Just For You!

Experts in this subject field are ready to write an original essay following your instructions to the dot!

Hire a Writer

The tourism industry in Nigeria

The tourism industry in Nigeria has significantly grown over the years. Recent research identifies that the tourism sector contributes close to $2 trillion of the world's economy (Mowforth and Munt 2015). Besides, the sector has boosted the economies of developing countries, especially those in Africa (Okupe, Ward, and Adeola 2018). However, it is evident that some countries or destinations receive more tourists than others, and the difference could be largely influenced by the tourism behaviors and attitudes that are developed at the family level (Martin, Rosenbaum, and Ham 2015; Miller and Rose 2017). Further studies identify that the decision-making process, personal, social and situational factors are among the leading conditions that determine the choice of a destination (McCabe, Li and Chen 2016). The impact of these factors on tourism behavior and attitudes is however not yet very clear. The strategy can significantly boost the performance of the tourism sector.

Statement of the Problem

The tourism sector continues to rely heavily on the family unit as one of its major sources of income. However, it is not yet very clear to some tourism companies the impact that family decision making had on tourism behavior and attitudes. An assessment of the problem could help promote the performance of the tourism sector as well as the economies of Nigeria.

Research Objectives

The aim of this research is to identify the impact that the choices made by families has on tourism behavior and attitudes. Besides, the investigation seeks to assess the various factors that families consider in the decision-making process before coming into a conclusion concerning the choice of their tourist site.

Research Questions

How does family decision making influence tourism behavior and attitudes, and what are the factors that are considered in the family decision making process?

Justification of the Research

The Decision Making Process

The travel industry has over the years ascertained that the family is a major consumer, and the unit has the magnitude to transform the performance of the sector. Decision making at the family level may be difficult especially if members may have disagreements over their sites of preference. A good family decision is that which is able to address the interests of all of its members (Khoo-Lattimore 2015). Researchers have identified that understanding the role of family members in the decision-making process can be helpful in determining the tourist destination choices of families (Merriam and Tisdell, 2015). Male parents, especially in Nigeria, play the dominant role in the decision-making process, while the females are mostly the initiators of the family travel plan (Oladepo and Abimbola 2015). The discovery has been essential in the development of effective marketing strategies amongst managers in the tourism sector (Ratten 2018). Most marketing strategies are designed in a manner that targets the senior members of a family.

Further research has identified the children have an insurmountable role in the decision-making process. Most parents are inclined towards the needs of their children since they are usually determined towards providing their children with the best life experience possible (Badland, Donovan, Mavoa, Oliver, Chaudhury, and Witten 2015). Hence, parents may select the products that their children prefer (Khoo-Lattimore, Prayag, and Cheah 2015). However, the influence of children in the decision-making process is determined by their age, the social status of the family, the family structure as well as their level of understanding of a product (Buffa 2015; Gretzel, Sigala, Xiang, and Koo 2015). Older children, children from wealthy backgrounds and those from single-family structures are more likely to influence the decisions of their parents on matters concerning tourist destination (Robertson 2018). Besides, girls have been identified to be more influential in the making of decisions regarding travel destinations. Mitra and Buliung (2015) confirm that families without children suffer a huge challenge in determining their travel destination and that they are most likely to follow the decisions made by families with children. Moreover, in some communities in Nigeria, fathers are highly regarded in the decision-making process and their decisions are highly respected (Samir and Lutz 2017). Lamidi (2016) also argues that the other family members are more likely to be content with the decision made by their fathers as compared to the mother. The case may not apply to other societies such as in America and parts of Europe where parents are regarded equally in the decision-making process.

Personal Preferences

According to marketing theories, consumers are more likely to select the destinations that match their interests. Buffa (2015) identifies that most tourists are interested in meeting new cultures and exploring the world. Other individuals may prefer places that are more hospitable and have beautiful sceneries (Schänzel and Yeoman 2015). Further, tourist sites personal preferences are also influenced by gender. According to Chen, L. and Chen, W. (2015), women are usually more inclined towards selecting travel destinations that improve family cohesion while men are more likely to select sites based on the kind of hospitality and natural experience provided (Katz, Lazarsfeld, and Roper 2017; Kavoura, and Stavrianea 2015). Besides, men are more likely to take major risks as compared to women.

Situational factors and Social and Cultural factors

The social-economic status of a family determines the decision-making process. Family members from low social economic levels are more likely to select cheaper destinations, spend shorter travel and tourist times, as well as move short distances to their tourist sites (Tanford and Montgomery 2015). On the other hand, wealthy families are most likely to go for the best hospitality services, as well as an exploring experience (Lee, Quintal, and Phau, 2017; Tajeddini, Ratten, and Denisa 2017). Besides, some tourists find certain cultures interesting to learn and understand (Wisudawati, and Maheswari 2018). Therefore, countries that are rich in culture are more likely to welcome more tourists than those with weak or no unique cultures (Sanford and Montgomery 2015). Nigeria needs to invest heavily on this. Further, tourist destinations that are able to offer quality services at a relatively affordable rate are more likely to have a dominant influence on the decision-making process of a family (Bianchi 2016; Han and Hyun 2015). Besides, other factors such as political state, level of security, weather patterns, and the location of destinations determine the number of tourists that decide to visit a particular site (Merza 2016; Oladokun, Adedara, and Adedadamola 2015; Zhang, A., Zhong, L., Xu, Wang, and Dang, 2015).

The Impact of Family Decisions on Tourism Attitude and Behavior

The decision-making process, as well as the choices made by family members in issues regarding travel destinations largely affects tourism behavior and attitudes. It is evident that a large percentage of the individuals that visit tourist sites is usually family members (Banki, and Ismail 2015). Therefore, companies need to identify the key decision makers, as well as the various factors that promote decision making such as personal preferences, cultural, and societal factors as well as situational factors (Almeida-García, Peláez-Fernández, Balbuena-Vazquez and Cortes-Macias 2016). Information regarding how the various factors influence decision making can, therefore, be used in designing the marketing approaches used by companies (Amadi, and Igwe 2016). A proper identification of the appropriate target market and their preferences can be used in shaping the tourism industry according to the needs of the market (Bernini, and Cracolici 2015). Companies should consider offering incentives such as price discounts, and additional services for their customers regardless of their social status, or originality (Bassey 2015). Further, the tourism sector needs to focus on improving their destination image, customer perception, as well as customer satisfaction (Allameh, Khazaei Pool, Jaberi, Salehzadeh, and Asadi 2015; Horner and Swarbrooke 2016). The strategies are more likely to promote customer loyalty amongst tourists and increases their chances of visiting the site again or leading other individuals to the same site.

In addition, the tourism sector has focused on boosting and preserving cultures that have become common elements in the decision-making process of customers. Countries such as Nigeria that is rich in culture have put in place measures to promote and protect cultural events. Besides, tourist firms have focused their attention on offering a world-class experience for their visitors through the inclusion of services such as recreational facilities (Abubakar, Idoko, and Ocholi 2017). The strategy improves customer attitudes and influences the decision-making process greatly. Besides, the tourism industry has invested heavily in marketing strategies on various platforms such as the social media, televisions, and magazines (Okonkwo and Odey 2018). As a result, customers have improved their knowledge of various tourist destinations and they have become more confident in the choices that they make. Understanding how family dynamics have gradually promoted the growth of the tourism industry as well as the economy of nations.


Various factors promote the decisions made by family members concerning the choice of the tourist site that they want to visit. Personal preferences, gender, age, social and cultural factors are among the elements that contribute to the choices made by tourists. Research on how tourism behavior and attitudes are influenced by family decision making is essential in the development of appropriate marketing strategies that attract more tourists.


Abubakar, E.O., Idoko, O. and Ocholi, O.S., 2017. Efficient Tour Planning for Tourist Sites Visitation in Lokoja, Nigeria: A Multi-Scenario Analysis Using GIS. Journal of Geographic Information System, 9(01), p.59.

Allameh, S.M., Khazaei Pool, J., Jaberi, A., Salehzadeh, R. and Asadi, H., 2015. Factors influencing sports tourists' revisit intentions: the role and effect of the destination image, perceived quality, perceived value, and satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 27(2), pp.191-207.

Almeida-García, F., Peláez-Fernández, M.Á., Balbuena-Vazquez, A. and Cortes-Macias, R., 2016. Residents' perceptions of tourism development in Benalmádena (Spain). Tourism Management, 54, pp.259-274.

Amadi, L. and Igwe, P., 2016. Maximizing the eco tourism potentials of the wetland regions through sustainable environmental consumption: a case of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2(1), pp.13-22.

Badland, H., Donovan, P., Mavoa, S., Oliver, M., Chaudhury, M. and Witten, K., 2015. Assessing neighbourhood destination access for children: development of the NDAI-C audit tool. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 42(6), pp.1148-1160.

Banki, M.B. and Ismail, H.N., 2015. Understanding the characteristics of family-owned tourism micro businesses in mountain destinations in developing countries: evidence from Nigeria. Tourism Management Perspectives, 13, pp.18-32.

Bassey, B.E., 2015. Transforming the Nigeria tourism industry through tourism entrepreneurial development. African Journal of Business Management, 9(15), pp.569-580.

Bernini, C. and Cracolici, M.F., 2015. Demographic change, tourism expenditure, and life cycle behaviour. Tourism Management, 47, pp.191-205.

Bianchi, C., 2016. Solo holiday travellers: motivators and drivers of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), pp.197-208.

Buffa, F., 2015. Young tourists and sustainability. Profiles, attitudes, and implications for destination strategies. Sustainability, 7(10), pp.14042-14062.

Gretzel, U., Sigala, M., Xiang, Z. and Koo, C., 2015. Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electronic Markets, 25(3), pp.179-188.

Horner, S. and Swarbrooke, J., 2016. Consumer behaviour in tourism. Routledge.

Kavoura, A. and Stavrianea, A., 2015. Following and belonging to an online travel community in social media, its shared characteristics, and gender differences. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 175, pp.515-521.

Katz, E., Lazarsfeld, P.F. and Roper, E., 2017. Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communications. Routledge.

Khoo-Lattimore, C., 2015. Kids on board: Methodological challenges, concerns, and clarifications when including young children's voices in tourism research. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(9), pp.845-858.

Khoo-Lattimore, C., Prayag, G. and Cheah, B.L., 2015. Kids on board: Exploring the choice process and vacation needs of Asian parents with young children in resort hotels. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 24(5), pp.511-531.

Lamidi, E.O., 2016. Multilevel analysis of state variations in women's participation in household decision-making in Nigeria. Journal of International Women's Studies, 17(1), pp.186-201.

Lee, S., Quintal, V. and Phau, I., 2017. Investigating the push and pull factors between visitors' motivations of fringe and urban parks. Tourism Analysis, 22(3), pp.389-406.

Martin, D., Rosenbaum, M. and Ham, S., 2015. Marketing tourism and hospitality products worldwide: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, 68(9), pp. 1819-1821.

McCabe, S., Li, C. and Chen, Z., 2016. Time for a radical reappraisal of tourist decision making? Toward a new conceptual model. Journal of Travel Research, 55(1), pp.3-15.

Miller, P. and Rose, N., 2017. Political power beyond the state: Problematics of government. In Foucault and Law (pp. 191-224). Routledge.

McCabe, S., Li, C. and Chen, Z., 2016. Time for a radical reappraisal of tourist decision making? Toward a new conceptual model. Journal of Travel Research, 55(1), pp.3-15.

Merriam, S.B. and Tisdell, E.J., 2015. Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Merza, S., 2016. How security impacts tourism to low-income countries. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Sept. 2018].

Mitra, R. and Buliung, R.N., 2015. Exploring differences in school travel mode choice behaviour between children and youth. Transport Policy, 42, pp.4-11.

Mowforth, M. and Munt, I., 2015. Tourism and sustainability: development, globalisation and new tourism in the third world. Routledge.

Oladepo, O.I. And Abimbola, O.S., 2015. The influence of brand image and promotional mix on consumer buying decision-a study of beverage consumers in Lagos State, Nigeria. British Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(4), pp.97-109.

Okonkwo, E.E. and Odey, A.O., 2018. Impact of sustainability on tourism development in Nigeria: a case study of cross river state, Nigeria. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, pp.1-21.

Okupe, A., Ward, T. and Adeola, O., 2018. Enhancing Hospitality and Tourism Industry Competitiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Africa’s Competitiveness in the Global Economy (pp. 137-167). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Oladokun, O.J., Adedara, T.M. and Adedadamola, J.O., 2015. Tourism and climate change: combating climate change effects on tourism participation in Nigeria. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality, and Sports, 5, pp.1-5.

Ratten, V., 2018. Entrepreneurial intentions of surf tourists. Tourism Review, 73(2), pp.262-276.

Robertson, R., 2018. Social theory, cultural relativity, and the problem of globality. In Sociology of Globalization (pp. 61-67). Routledge.

Samir, K.C., and Lutz, W., 2017. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100. Global Environmental Change, 42, pp.181-192.

 Sanford, S. and Montgomery, R., 2015. The effects of social influence and cognitive dissonance on travel purchase decisions. Journal of Travel Research, 54(5), pp.596-610.

Schänzel, H.A., and Yeoman, I., 2015. Trends in family tourism. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1(2), pp.141-147.

Tajeddini, K., Ratten, V. and Denisa, M., 2017. Female tourism entrepreneurs in Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, pp.52-58.

Wisudawati, N.N.S. and Maheswari, A.I.A., 2018. Potential of Silver Craft Product through to Community-Based for Tourism Sustainability in Celuk Village. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences (IRJMIS), 5(1), pp.9-15.

Zhang, A., Zhong, L., Xu, Y., Wang, H. and Dang, L., 2015. Tourists’ perception of haze pollution and the potential impacts on travel: reshaping the features of tourism seasonality in Beijing, China. Sustainability, 7(3), pp.2397-2414.

January 19, 2024

Life Family Travelling

Subject area:


Number of pages


Number of words




Writer #



Expertise Tourism
Verified writer

If you need urgent revisions or require a reliable person to fix things, Frank is the man to choose. He is an experienced person who is trained to work hard. I have tried him for travelling writing, and he never let me down!

Hire Writer

This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Eliminate the stress of Research and Writing!

Hire one of our experts to create a completely original paper even in 3 hours!

Hire a Pro