The Impact of Social Media in the Clothing Industry in the United Kingdom

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The clothing industry in the United Kingdom is dynamic, competitive, innovative and creative as a result of massive investments in technology and integration of social media platforms into apparel operations. Over the past decade, consumers have their use of social media. Such developments have prompted clothing brands to invest in those platforms to ensure that they survive and retain their respective market shares. In this project, the researcher will mainly establish the impact of consumers’ increased use of social media on strategies used by fashion retailers. The researcher will also evaluate several case studies of apparel manufacturers and retailers to identify key strategies of survival in the sector.

Social media platforms such as Facebook, You Tube, Snap Chat, Tumblr, Instagram and Twitter are increasingly being used by customers in online shopping and as modes of keeping up with trends from all across the globe. Such a phenomenon has thus prompted fashion retailers in the United Kingdom to tap into the convenience accrued from use of such networks in a majority of their strategies for instance marketing, strategic management and public relations. Firms that have shifted their operations towards this direction, have experienced transformations in their enterprises in the form of increased productivity.

Table of Contents



1.0 Introduction. 5

1.1 Statement Purpose. 7

1.2 Background. 7

1.21 Outlook of the British Clothing Market (2017-2022) 8

1.22 Social Media Usage in the United Kingdom.. 9

1.23 Top Fashion Retailers in the United Kingdom.. 14

1.2 Research Question. 15

1.3 Research Objectives. 15

1.4 Significance of the Study. 16

1.5 Problem Statement 16

1.6 Organization of the Study. 17

1.7 Chapter Summary. 17



2.0 Introduction. 18

2.1 Assessing the Impact of Social Media on the Fashion Industry. 18

2.2 Understanding the Impact of Instagram on Fashion Retailing. 19

2.3 Social Media: the New Driver in Clothing Retailing. 22

2.4 Succeeding as a Fashion Retailer in the United Kingdom.. 23

2.5 Challenges Faced by UK Fashion Retailers. 30

2.6 Chapter Summary. 31



3.0 Introduction. 32

3.1 Research Philosophy. 33

3.2 Research Design. 34

3.3 Choice of methodology. 34

3.4 Target Population. 35

3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sampling Size. 35

3.6 Data Analysis Tool 36

3.7 Ethical Issues in the Research Project 36

3.8 Reliability of the Study. 37

3.9 Limitations and Strengths. 37

3.10 Research Gaps. 38

3.11 Chapter Summary. 38



4.0 Introduction. 39

4.1 Demographic Characteristics of Participants; Questionnaires. 39

4.1.1 Gender 39

4.1.2 Age. 40

4.1.3 Educational Background. 41

4.2 Demographic Features of Interviewees. 41

4.2.1 Gender 41

4.2.2 Age. 42

4.2.3 Educational Background. 43

4.3 Data from Questionnaires. 43

4.31 Frequency of using Social Media. 43

4.5 Influence of Social Media on doing Fashion Shopping. 48

4.51 Data from Questionnaires. 48

4.52 Data from Interviews. 51

4.6 Popularity of Social Media Networks among Respondents. 53

4.61 Data from Questionnaires. 53

4.7 Impact of Social Media on Strategies used by UK Fashion Retailers. 55

4.8 Fashion Retailers dominating the UK market through Digital and Social Media based Strategies 57

4.9 Chapter Summary. 59



5.0 Introduction. 60

5.1 Thematic Analysis. 60

5.1.1 Deviations and Recurrent Themes. 60

5.1.2 Key Data Themes and Conceptual Framework. 62

5.1.3 Discussions: Implications and Review of Results. 64

5.2 Summary of Chapter 66



6.1 Conclusion. 67

6.2 Limitations. 69

6.3 Recommendation for Future Research. 70

Bibliography. 71


APPENDIX I: Sample Questionnaire. 75


Sample Interview.. 79

Figure 1 a bar chart presentation of the population of social network users in the UK (Toran 2018, p. 150-160). 9

Figure 2 Popularity of social media platforms in the United Kingdom.Source: IPSOS MORI, 2017. 11

Figure 3 how social media platforms influence clothing fashion decisions (Courtesy: Dana Rebecca Designs, 2018). 18

Figure 4 clothing retail value in the UK (Source; IBIS World, 2017). 21

Figure 5 Departmental market shares- IBIS World, 2017). 22

Figure 6 UK online clothing retailing value, GBP billions (UK Office of National Statistics, 2018). 23

Figure 7 Parts of the research process (Kothari 2004, p. 15-19). 27

Figure 8 Impact of social media on strategies used by UK fashion retailers. 49

Figure 9 Conceptual framework. 56


1.0 Introduction

Social media is undeniably one of the most formidable forces that have played both pivotal and remarkable roles in redefining the art of fashion retailing in the United Kingdom and across the globe. Fashion retailers are increasingly taking advantage of social media to advance their marketing strategies. Consequently, organisational productivity and apparel sales have increased as a result of using social media as a marketing and feedback tool. The advent of technology has made the world a global village where any business is provided with an opportunity to thrive tremendously through expansion into numerous regions. Social media has over the past decade changed the way business operations are conducted internally and externally. Customers feel close to their preferences, tastes and expectations through their increased use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, blogs, Instagram and Snap Chat. Such platforms are used in sharing information, perspectives and experiences on products and services. Snap chat and Instagram stand out as useful social media platforms for apparel retailers considering the fact they feature sharing of appealing pictorial presentations of items and services (Allen, Kania & Yackel 2010, p. 10-15).

Regarding marketing, social media has introduced new dimensions of marketing and countless opportunities for fashion giants and startups alike. Public relations departments in numerous companies now consider social media as the most interactive, effective and transparent mode of engaging with existing and prospective clients. It is worth noting that social media is highly compatible with fashion retailing and marketing. One of the reasons behind this phenomenon is the fact that a majority of social media users across the globe are young people who are enthusiastic about fashion items. Therefore, social networking technology and related online platforms are naturally fit for use in the apparel industry. Social media and fashion share an intersection point; that of tracking trends and anticipation of populations across the globe. The shared phenomenon of patterns is useful for both fields, making them interdependent. Facebook and Twitter are used in the live streaming of catwalk shows where people from various regions gain a sense of ideas about the diversity of fashion styles and opinions. Furthermore, fashion designers have recorded heavy presence on social media. Boasting of massive following on social networks are those fashion bloggers and designers who immensely value the worth of social media in their businesses (Bernal 2010, p. 50-53).

Fashion bloggers and designers are regarded as decision makers and thought leaders in the apparel industry. Apparel brands shift their reliance towards such personalities to seek opinions and feedback messages about fashion products. An amalgamation of blogging and social networking creates a conducive environment for the marketing of fashion products in a distinct way. That is a powerful and influential way of establishing a niche in the highly competitive industry. Fashion photography has also found its way into social networking sites such as Instagram where millions of photographs are shared to reach out to millions of fashion enthusiasts. Currently, there is no doubt that customers have taken to social media where photography fashion and blogging is massive. Apparel retailers match and mix a myriad of styles and broadcast to social followers. According to the Fashion Monitor and Econsultancy report (2017), 23% of British customers and 275 of those based in America attributed their tastes and preferences to aggressive brand advertising undertaken through social media. Additionally, it is estimated that 30%-75% of budgetary allocations among fashion retailers is allocated to influencer marketing management conducted through social media platforms (Bovee & Thvili 2010, p. 13-17).

1.1 Statement Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to unearth the role played by increased use of social media by customers on strategies used by fashion retailers in the United Kingdom. Consequently, this dissertation project will rely on evidence from the operations of various fashion retailers in the United Kingdom. The researcher will also rely on evidential materials such as publications, economic surveys, observations, questionnaires and interviews to aid in documentation of precise findings, inferences and recommendations for fashion retailers in the United Kingdom.

1.2 Background

Social media platforms have revolutionised interactions between fashion designers & bloggers and average customers. One of the disadvantages of traditional marketing platforms (magazines, billboards and television commercials) is an inability to track timely feedback of customers. On the other hand, use of social media in the fashion industry has come with its fair share of advantages such as the ability to track online comments about certain fashion products. Nowadays, fashion retailers can easily access their target markets with ease with the aid of social media. Among the most efficient platforms used by fashion brands, designers and bloggers include; Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Google+ and Pinterest. The infamous financial crisis that was evident ten years ago led to declining markets for high-end apparel products. Such a scenario led to the need for a change in the structure of strategies used by fashion organisations to ensure that they survived in the competitive industry. When the social media era was ushered, fashion brands shifted their attention towards the evolving needs of consumers. With the new strategy, came the intensive use of live streams, videos and interactive sessions to address the existing wide gap between fashion houses and consumers (Calibey & Beaudreaut 2010, p. 40-41).

1.21 Outlook of the British Clothing Market (2017-2022)

Over the next five years, the UK clothing market is expected to grow at an impressive 16.6% to hit an all-time high of £ 51.2 billion (Bovee & Thvili 2010, p. 13-17). The fashion market in the country is expected to be influenced by various factors such as inflation, manufacturing costs and fluctuation of the British pound. Generally, apparel volumes are expected to stay low owing to declining disposable income levels of consumers; it should also be noted that consumers are highly likely to prioritise on grocery, food products and leisure events. By 2022, menswear is expected to be the single most attractive category raking in billions of pounds with a trajectory growth potential of more than 20%. The success predicted for this category is also based on recorded massive investments by various fashion retailers in menswear. Additionally, the fashion industry will be the 3rd fastest growing economic sector (after beauty & health and grocery & food). In 2017, M&S was observed to be the biggest loser alongside crucial rival-Next. In the United Kingdom, the youth have higher purchase frequency than other demographic market segments. The youth’s desire and enthusiasm towards keeping abreast with top trends is bound to be a win for fashion retailers by 2022 as evident in the past decade.

1.22 Social Media Usage in the United Kingdom

The figure below illustrates the number of social media users in the United Kingdom (2015-2022); the years after 2018 possess figures drawn from predictions;

Figure 1 a bar chart presentation of the population of social network users in the UK (Toran 2018, p. 150-160).

Fashion designers and bloggers are set to gain more income from their strategies on social media based on the populations captured above. Additionally, the number of social network users is on an upward trend; a key advantage for all stakeholders in the fashion industry.

The table below illustrates social media network usage as per various age groups;

Table 1 Social media usage in the United Kingdom (by age categories -Source: IPSOS MORI, 2017)

Social Media Network

Age Category (years)






























Snap chat




































None of the above






The table above is crucial in determining various strategies used by fashion retailers in reaching out to different demographic segments of the market. In almost all the categories, young people aged between 16 and 34 are recorded to be forming a majority of social network users. Therefore, fashion retailers are likely to spend fewer resources on obtaining feedback and advertising apparel products to them compared to strategies used on those over 50 years.

The pie chart below illustrates the popularity of social networks in the United Kingdom;

Figure 2 Popularity of social media platforms in the United Kingdom. Source: IPSOS MORI, 2017.

From the chart above, it is clear that Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the United Kingdom; boasting of 32 million users. Twitter comes at a distant second (20 million users) while YouTube has 19.1 million users, Instagram (14 million), Google + (12.6 million), Pinterest (10.3 million), Snap chat (13.6 million), LinkedIn (19 million), Tumblr (9 million), Reddit (6.6 million) and Vimeo is the least popular social networking site with only 412, 085 users in the United Kingdom. Going by those statistics, it is clear that fashion retailers in the UK are well positioned to advertise their products through sites with massive following such as Instagram and Facebook (IPSOS MORI, 2017).

1.23 Top Fashion Retailers in the United Kingdom

There are various fashion retailers in the UK that have overcome a myriad of odds to establish a firm grip on their market shares in an extremely competitive industry as a result of useful strategies. For instance, Misguided made improved its sales by 49.4% in the past year. With a valuation of £ 700 million, the fashion retailer attributes its success to aggressive marketing strategies online and especially through social networking sites and blogging. In the European Union, Misguided registered 209.2% increase in revenues and general growth of 94.9% outside Europe. Farfetch is another online fashion retailer that has overcome various stumbling blocks to achieve a revenue increase of 70% in 2017 to £ 12 million. On launching its IPO in the United Kingdom, the fashion retailer is on its way towards a valuation of more than £ 5 billion. Farfetch boasts of more than four hundred physical stores and makes use of data collected online and in those boutiques to create operational frameworks for expansion, development and tactics of handling stiff competition at home and abroad. Asos, an experience fashion e-commerce platform has created a unique multi-channel retail program that enabled it to launch more than eight hundred brands in the UK and other countries. Consequently, Asos registered a 16% revenue increase in the United Kingdom alone and a total aggregate increase of 27% worldwide. Boux Avenue is a fashion retailer that mainly deals in lingerie and registered an increase of 11.2% in sales for financial 2017 to reach an aggregate of £ 49.4 million. Completing the top five fashion retailers in the United Kingdom is Superdry which mainly deals in sporting brands, casual accessories and apparel. Superdry registered a revenue growth of £ 319.2 million in 2017 (Toran 2018, p. 151-155).

1.2 Research Question

This dissertation project is set to answer the question; what is the role played by increased use of social media by British consumers in shaping the strategies employed by clothing fashion retailers in the country?

1.3 Research Objectives

The following objectives will guide the researcher in making findings and inferences enumerated and codified in the project;

Ø Examining strategies used by fashion retailers before the advent of social media.

Ø Examining the strategies used by fashion retailers during the modern age of social networking sites.

Ø Evaluating the business environment of the United Kingdom and relating it to the fashion industry.

Ø Establishing the main challenges by fashion retailers’ use of social media in their commercial strategies.

Ø Analyzing the impact of social media users on revenues, expansion programs and adaptability of fashion retailers in the United Kingdom.

Ø Examining the impact of social media use on purchasing behaviours.

Ø To investigate the most effective fashion shopping strategies that can motivate social media users to purchase

1.4 Significance of the Study

This dissertation project will enable the researcher to gain a deep comprehension of social media use and the outlook of the UK fashion industry. The researcher will also benefit from research skills after engaging respondents from various walks of life during the project. To future researchers, findings and inferences made on this project would form a reasonable basis for their referencing materials. This research project would also give them a chance to compare with other elements while conducting studies on related topics. For fashion design & strategic management students, this dissertation would prove to be more than sufficient because of its comprehensive nature and a sensitive approach towards handling social issues. Such students would also benefit from brand descriptions, strategies, communication channels and advertising strategies. The findings and inferences enumerated therein would also help fashion retailers based in the United Kingdom. For instance, they can identify ways of coping with the millennial generation and perceiving social media as an opportunity instead a threat.

1.5 Problem Statement

The fashion industry in the United Kingdom has not yet achieved its full potential due to slow adoption and integration of critical social and digital media strategies to capitalise on the nature of modern consumers. Even though some fashion retailers have on the forefront while using social media to their advantage (moving towards the direction of modern consumers), other stakeholders have exhibited worrying patterns of systemic and systematic disregard for the role played by social media in their commercial operations. Until recently, even some big clothing players had considered social media to be a tool for startups and small retailers. However, a majority of fashion retailers in the United Kingdom are gradually appreciating social media and consequently shaping their strategies to conform to consumers’ tastes, preferences and expectations.

1.6 Organization of the Study

The second chapter of this dissertation project will involve a review of scholarly articles, journals, publications and past reports on the subject matter. Section three will be used in listing various research methodologies used in the study. The fourth chapter of this dissertation project will involve tabulation and presentation of findings. The fifth section would mainly focus on analysis and discussions, based on results recorded in the previous section. The researcher will use the final chapter in making conclusions and recommendations for further study. Appendices section will include useful attachments such as interview excerpts and sample questionnaires used in collecting data for the study.

1.7 Chapter Summary

This chapter involved introducing the subject of study through a brief overview of the social media and it relation to the fashion industry in the United Kingdom. Research questions and objectives were stated to guide the researcher during the data collection period and review of past scholarly articles & journals. In this chapter, the researcher also emphasized the importance of this study to various stakeholders and analyzed the problem statement.



2.0 Introduction

This chapter will mainly focus on reviewing studies related to social media, fashion retail industry in the United Kingdom and the correlation between them. Therefore, the researcher will use this section to review arguments put forth by other scholars in journals, articles, books and research projects. Assessment of those argument will enable the researcher to unearth underlying issues about the subject of study.

2.1 Assessing the Impact of Social Media on the Fashion Industry

According to Gillin & Shwartzman (2010, p. 30), social media has gained ground in the world of marketing. Use of social media in fashion retailing enterprises has led to what is referred to as an era of immediacy; the capitalisation of more than two billion social media users across the globe. Fashion brands are increasingly using social media platforms to broadcast live fashion events and shows to particular audiences and ultimately everyone interested in the apparel industry. Social media has redefined the concept of consumerism from what we used to associate with; ushering a paradigm shift into a ‘see now buy now' strategy used by clothing dealers across the United Kingdom. Additionally, such an approach has led to the formulation of a direct to consumer model that has been experimented by fashion retailers such as Ralph Lauren, Tommy Hilfiger and Michael Kors. Such designers use this model to ensure that their consumers gain direct access to clothing items after their debuts on runways. Bernal (2010, p. 22) notes that a direct to consumer model also has an impact on the entire supply chain structure in that it reorganises it to increase organisational productivity and improve staff turnover. Consumer-oriented approaches have been made possible by increased use of social media by British consumers; leading to scaled-down waiting durations for various clothing retailers. Corresponding instant gratification leads to the creation of an active link between customers and fashion retailers. The model also ensures that unnecessary middle persons are eliminated from the supply chain model; leading to reduced buying prices for apparel items.

Social media is also a key driver in shaping sales levels among fashion retailers in the United Kingdom. A good example is when Rebecca Minkoff organised a fashion show in September 2016. Later, it was observed and recorded that the firm increased its physical and online stores by 168% in a single weekend. Burberry (in collaboration with triggered an immediate increase in sales for three products (cashmere tops, cashmere sweaters and bowling shirts) from the womenswear collection. The basic assumption and in most cases reality is that social media triggers a sense of urgency to engage in clothing purchases (Scatturo 2016, p. 470).

2.2 Understanding the Impact of Instagram on Fashion Retailing

It is estimated that Instagram influences almost 75% of online consumer purchase decisions as a result of its attractiveness and appealing features to the eye. According to a survey conducted by Dana Rebecca Designs (2018), in which two thousand consistent Instagram users were surveyed, it was noted that 85% of those users follow accounts related to lifestyle, fashion and trends. About 63% of the respondents described themselves as fashion forward people. During the survey, it also became clear that Instagram has a direct influence on purchase decisions bearing in mind that 72% of the respondents admitted to making fashion related purchase decisions based on apparel posts on Instagram. Instagram users are broken down as follows; 89% of the millennial generation, 65% of baby boomers and 82% of Gen Xers. Other platforms like Snap Chat are still under examination to determine their suitability for driving instant apparel sales considering consumers’ paradigm shift towards digital and social networking sites.

The pie chart below illustrates the influential ability of various social media sites on purchase decisions according to the survey;

Figure 3 how social media platforms influence clothing fashion decisions (Courtesy: Dana Rebecca Designs, 2018).

From the pie chart illustrated above, it is evident that Instagram is the single largest influencer in clothing purchase decisions (51%) followed by Facebook (23%), Pinterest-22%, Twitter-3% and Snapchat-1%. According to a different study conducted by Yes Lifecycle Marketing (2018), had concluded that a significant proportion of Gen Zers’ purchase decisions are predominantly influenced by Snap chat (21%). More than 40% of individuals in the same category also cited Instagram as the chief influencer in their purchase decisions.

2.3 Social Media: the New Driver in Clothing Retailing

According to Bovee & Thrill (2010, p. 69), dependence on social media in almost all areas of our lives is on the rise as a result of intensive online strategies that have been employed by clothing retailers in the United Kingdom and across the globe. Online content especially that which is related to fashion is a major influencer in purchase decisions made by consumers. Previously, fashion news and trends were presented through catwalk shows and magazines in exclusivity (editors and designers determined content included therein). Nowadays, consumers can smile to the eventual change of story; considering that platforms such as Twitter, Instagram and Snap chat have enabled timely delivery of trending fashion topics for interaction between retailers and consumers. Even though some of those conventional modes of relaying fashion trends such as catwalk shows are still used; it is undeniable that social media platforms have made some of them irrelevant due to the latter's ability to create a permanent link between consumers and clothing retailers (Kant 2014, p. 430).

Chaffey et al., (2009, p. 47) reiterate that fashion enthusiasts no longer have to wait for Vogue’s latest publication to understand clothing trends because all details have been laid bare on social media platforms. It is also worth noting that millennials have little trust in conventional modes of clothing advertisements. Consequently, it thus follows that advertising campaigns and magazines no longer wield the massive influence they enjoyed up until the 90s. The modern generation has attached paramount importance to accessible peer recommendations on what they should wear. In the United Kingdom, more than 40% of Instagram users claim that they follow fashion accounts so that they gain a sense of inspiration on how they should look. Millennials are characterised by a dire need to increase validation from their peers as far as clothing and fashion trends are concerned. Such a scenario is made possible by social posts on sites where the magnitude of feedback information is intense. Close to 71% of people across the world are highly likely to make online purchases based on a recommendation from their peers. Additionally, 84% of millennials draw their influence from the experience of other people as documented on their social media posts. As a result of this scenario, many fashion retailers in the United Kingdom and across the globe have resorted to employing various marketing strategies revolving around social media sites such as Instagram. Advertising on digital spaces reached an all-time high of $ 100 billion in 2016 (Toran 2018, p. 160).

2.4 Succeeding as a Fashion Retailer in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, local and international fashion retailers have found joyous realisation in enormous trade opportunities that are as a result of the enormous customer base. Swedish fashion brands can be singled out among the most successful enterprises in the United Kingdom (Christopher, Lawson & Peck 2004, p. 80). It should also be noted that demand for Swedish clothing brands has been on the rise over the years. However, it is not always a smooth ride for fashion retailers considering that competition is stiff in the British clothing market with each player employing powerful marketing strategies to meet the needs of consumers. Interestingly, now might not be the best time to venture into the market; bearing in mind the deep uncertainty that is set to come with Brexit. In the recent past, clothing businesses have experienced tremendous growth as a result of various factors; online retailing, use of social media in marketing, peer to peer recommendations, mobile commerce and the ever-growing apparel market. The bar chart below illustrates the retail clothing value in the United Kingdom;

Figure 4 clothing retail value in the UK (Source; IBIS World, 2017).

In 2016, consumer confidence registered a slowdown thus negatively affecting the fashion retail sector. Consumers also exhibit sensitivity when it comes to price and competition. London is undoubtedly one of the prominent fashion capital of the world; contributing immensely to the UK’s national output. Therefore, fashion retailers based in London have the good corporate image and possess what may be referred to as a quality stamp. Renting a retail space in London costs entrepreneurs far much more than any other part of Europe.

Additionally, fashion retailers based in the United Kingdom face a myriad of challenges; high commercial rates, top staff turnover, taxes and general personnel costs.

Therefore, fashion retailers wishing to venture into the British market are admonished to take into consideration these factors and how the Brexit is likely to affect their operations. Regions that exhibit the highest concentration of retail spending in the United Kingdom include; Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, London and Birmingham. Growth drivers in London include; cross rail which is set for completion later this year, King's Cross & Battersea, a transformation of Covent Garden and the rise of Regent Street.

The figure below illustrates departmental store market shares in the United Kingdom;

Figure 5 Departmental market shares- IBIS World, 2017).

Departmental stores that are large regarding market capital capitalisation play domination role in the UK clothing retail market. Established fashion retailers are dominant in the market with the main players accounting for more than 30% of the whole departmental store market. However, bearing in mind the evolving and unpredictable tendencies of consumer behaviour, it is clear that some startups and small players have come with new market strategies to claim their share of the UK clothing market. Among these strategies is the art of collaboration between retailers to meet changing consumer needs. When local retailers create close relationships with each other, they gain an ability to tackle stiff competition in the market together. It should also be noted that the largest online retailer- Amazon is also competing in the fashion category; thus complicating issues further for small retailers.

The figure below illustrates the UK online clothing retailing value;

Figure 6 UK online clothing retailing value, GBP billions (UK Office of National Statistics, 2018).

Increased use of smartphones have led to various trends in the United Kingdom; social commerce (use of social media in marketing), commuter commerce (WiF

January 19, 2024

Marketing Lifestyle

Subject area:

Social Media Fashion

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