The Importance of Job Analysis in Human Resource Management

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Human resource management is a strategic process that ensures the organisation of workers to aid in achieving the goals of an organisation, as well as gives it a competitive advantage (Gump, 2015). The human resources management department focuses on the maximisation of employees to ensure they utilize their potential and also have an easy time doing their job. It is a vital department since employees are a vital factor of production, whose well-being affects how well they perform their tasks. All the issues to do with workers are the construct of the human resources management. Each of the functions of the human resource management gear towards making sure each of the tasks in an organisation goes as planned and that they have the best of the resources available (Gump, 2015).

I agree that the information produced by job analysis is used at length in Human Resource Management, for reasons that are discussed herein.

Job Analysis

This phrase refers to the procedures that go towards identifying the content of a job regarding the kinds of activities it involves, as well as the attributes required of that position. In so doing, this process decides what kind of an employee fits a certain job position (Thomas, 2015). Without this kind of analysis, employees may end up doing work that does not fit their skills and does not give them the best conditions to be positive. One key thing about the concept of human resources is management is that it treats employees as people with different dimensions and aspects of life. Unlike in personnel management that treats employees as mere tools, HRM understands that all the aspects of a person’s life have to be in sync to be the most productive (Thomas, 2015). It also provides for the differences in the personalities that human beings feature.

Steps to Job Analysis and How they Impact HRM

Description of the Duties

Every employee occupies a specific niche in an organization, each of which is vital to the running of the firm. To analyse a job effectively, the duties of the employee require analysis (Thomas, 2015).

Listing of the Tasks

The description of duties might be general, but the description of tasks becomes much more specific. Tasks involve the day-to-day activities that a job requires. It provides for further management of duties, detailing what exactly a person should do to meet the responsibilities he/she has.

Listing of Critical Tasks

Among the tasks, each has a different level of importance. There are critical tasks that an employee should never ignore or downplay. Therefore, the analyst(s) rates the tasks to determine which ones are most vital. This process ensures that the person assigned to the position knows exactly what they should prioritize to succeed in their objectives (Thomas, 2015).

Identification of Required Skills

Skill refers to a learned capability to carry out predetermined tasks effectively. Skills are developed through training and experience. So, here, the analysts consider what skills the potential candidate should possess to be productive in their position (Thomas, 2015). This process considers the academic and professional qualifications to ensure a person must be trained to carry out all the activities required for a position. It also considers the experience required to sharpen these skills for ultimate success.

Identification of Critical Competencies

Competencies are specific characteristics that people possess that make them effective in their work. They set these people apart from other people with the same set of skills. Competencies focus on how a person does their work, as opposed to what they can do. The analysts, therefore, focus on those specific attributes that enhance how work is best completed. These competencies may include issues like communication, time management, and ability to work in a team. Various positions require different sets of competencies (Thomas, 2015). Verbal communication, for example, would be essential in a person working in sales and marketing but have little or no bearing to a person working in the IT department. 

Identification of the Conditions of Working

HRM recognizes that people thrive in different conditions. Working conditions cover a broad range of issues that determine how attractive a position is to employees. They cover the hours of work and the durations of rest (International Labor Organization, 2018). Different positions need different conditions of work depending on how labour intensive they are. The duration of rest also affects the employees, depending on how involving their duties and tasks are. Another aspect of working conditions is the schedule (International Labor Organization, 2018). Some positions require for an employee to report very early in the morning and leave work early while others demand attention during the evenings and nights. A cleaner, for example, would need to come in very early in the morning to make sure an organisation is cleaned and arranged to ensure smooth activities or report to work after closing hours to prepare for the next day. Most organizations these days respond well to the current trends in working conditions. Some allow employees to design their schedules to best suit their personalities (International Labor Organization, 2018). Some allow workers to work from home or telecommute depending on the demands of the job. Others provide options to work part-time too.

Linking the Tasks to the Competencies

After the entire analysis, the analysts can then prepare profiles for specific job positions to include the skills and competencies required the conditions of work as well as the remuneration (Thomas, 2015). This step is essential especially before advertising positions to fill. Discussed herein also are the reasons job analysis is important in HRM.

Uses of Information Obtained through Job Analysis

Recruitment and Selection

Before a firm begins to recruit employees, they must understand the positions that require filling, the duties and responsibilities of a potential employee, the working conditions and the skills required (Waters, Mironova, & Stobinski, 2017). During recruitment, firms advertise positions while citing the minimum conditions required of a position. During selection, they can focus on the critical competencies preferable as well as the attributes. These competencies are noticeable by observation and interviewing.

Training

Job analysis, through the identification of skills required, sets training objectives (Waters, Mironova, & Stobinski, 2017). Skills, since they are learned, can be obtained through training. Because of advancements in technology and changes in needs, a firm can identify the need to train employees. The training can be for new employees in new positions or for existing employees too.

Performance Appraisal

It refers to the periodic review of an employee’s performance of tasks against the pre-set standards (Waters, Mironova, & Stobinski, 2017). Job analysis sets the base against which the appraisal is done. The analysis provides the specific duties and tasks. The quality of the work of employees can then be assessed with respect to the job requirements.

Compensation

Job analysis helps in determining the value of a job position. Some positions require very little input while others are much more demanding. The frequency of the work also determines its value. The degree of responsibility also determines how valuable it is (Harvey, 2017). Some positions require a worker to take responsibilities for those below him/her, such as managerial and supervisory positions. Another factor is the level of risks and potential hazards associated with the job (Roughton & Crutchfield, 2016). The riskier it is, the more the compensation should be.

Discovery of Unassigned Duties

Sometimes, an organisation might ignore some duties, sharing them among the workers with no specific order. Such services, in some cases, even include cleaning, where each worker cleans their space while the cleaning of shared spaces ensues without any kind of organization. Therefore, in the process of job analysis, the analysts may decide to combine these unassigned duties and create a new work position, to which they recruit and select a new employee (Waters, Mironova, & Stobinski, 2017).  

Creating a Hierarchy

Accountability and responsibility are essential in every job position and is essential in determining the success of a firm. In the job analysis and description, each employee recognises to whom they report and answer (Waters, Mironova, & Stobinski, 2017). They know their limits and the demands their superiors place on them. This also determines the kind of language they use while addressing their superiors, juniors, and other colleagues.

Conclusion

Job analysis is vital in the functioning of the HRM in every organization. In fact, it is the foundation of human resources management. It is impossible for a firm to manage its workers without a job analysis of the specific positions available. It would be chaotic if the workers were not clear on what their duties are, what working conditions their jobs feature, and even what competencies to develop to succeed in their work. It would also be very difficult to decide what compensation each employee get. There would also exist no hierarchy in the organisation, and nobody would answer to anybody. Performance appraisal would also be impossible.

Job analysis ensures the smooth running of activities in a firm. It provides that everyone knows their tasks and the standards they are expected to deliver. It also provides that there are no major conflicts since everyone knows their place and the role they play towards ensuring success in the firm. The steps involved in the job analysis process ensure that every position gets a person who is most competent and able to handle the responsibilities it features. Therefore, it is evident in the discussions presented herein that information produced by job analysis is used extensively in Human Resource Management, and is vital to the success of an organization.

References

Gump, J. (2015). Human Resources Governance and Compliance: Compliance and the Importance of Human Resources Management. Handbook of Human Resources Management, 1-7. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40933-2_101-1

Harvey, C. (2017, October 6). The Top 10 Factors that Influence Your Salary - Datamation. Retrieved from https://www.datamation.com/careers/slideshows/the-top-10-factors-that-influence-your-salary.html

International Labor Organization. (2018). Working conditions. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/working-conditions/lang--en/index.htm

Roughton, J., & Crutchfield, N. (2016). Why Focus on the Job Hazard Analysis Process. Job Hazard Analysis, 1-13. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803441-5.00001-5

Thomas, J. C. (2015). Task Analysis, Job Analysis and Job Modeling. Oxford Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1093/med:psych/9780195385496.003.0004

Waters, L. D., Mironova, O., & Stobinski, J. X. (2017). The Many Potential Uses for a Job Analysis. Journal of the Association for Vascular Access, 22(3), 124-128. doi:10.1016/j.java.2017.06.007

October 30, 2023
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