Total Quality Management: An Effective Tool for Customer Satisfaction

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The total quality management (TQM) refers to the plans that an organization puts in place, to provide a permanent climate for the provision of high-quality products and services to the buyers (Jiménez et al., 2015). Many organizations do not apply the concept, as they claim that changes should be done after a breakage. However, ensuring that customers get goods and services of high quality should be prioritized by every organization. The Going Green Technology Inc. is one of the companies that has regretted the aspect, which has led to fewer improvements in serving North American Companies that want to “go green”. The paper discusses the significance of total quality management plans in improving the satisfaction of the customer and the obligations in establishing a TQM agenda. Implementation challenges or barriers are also addressed as well as the ways to handle them. Also, the work describes the concept as a decisive factor in ensuring changes and how the cultural and ethical features of Going Green Technology Inc. may play a factor in improving the TQM efforts.

Keywords: management, customer, organization, business, “go green”

TQM Implementation

Importance of Total Quality Management Initiatives

All business organizations aim to meet the needs and demands of the customers in order to maximize profits. One of the ways to ensure that requirements are met is by providing customer satisfaction, which refers to the state where the buyers feel that the organization is offering quality goods and services. In ensuring this, total quality management tool has to be put into practice, where several benefits regarding customer satisfaction are encountered. To start with, TQM eliminates defects and waste in the organization. With the implementation of the concept, the chances of making mistakes in the process of producing goods are reduced, leading to the production of quality products. Also, with decreasing wastes, it means that the prices indicated on the assets are convenient because every resource is used in the right way, thus enabling the organization to offer products at affordable prices. When buyers are provided with quality goods at affordable prices, satisfaction is evident.

The other benefit of TQMinitiatives is that employees are actively involved, and their matters considered, making them comfortable and thus relate well to the customers (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The workers in an organization determine how well the buyers are satisfied as they directly relate with them in service. This is to say that as long as the employees are comfortable working in the organization, customers are satisfied. The total quality management initiatives ensure that employees are handled as expected. For example, they are motivated to work in the organization. Motivation could be in the form of giving incentives to them, solving their issues and consulting them while making organizational decisions that would affect them. Apart from that, the initiatives ensure frequent training sessions for the workers. In training them, they acquire more knowledge and skills, which creates a chance for them to explore their careers and get promotions. These are some of the aspects that encourage the workers to remain in an organization. Where they are implemented, the workers serve the customers as required which contributes to customer satisfaction.

Cooperation and teamwork are also ensured by the TQM initiatives, and they are partly responsible for the customer contentment as well (Mathew, 2014). In any organization, efficient communication is a must for success to be attained. The management officials and employees must relate closely and work as a team. Providing that, information regarding production and the welfare of the organization is conveyed on time and all the stakeholders, which leads to meeting the demands of the buyers. Where teamwork is ensured, problems that affect the organization are solved as early as they happen, which guarantees the impact does not reach the customers. Apart from that, issues raised by the buyers, for example complaints, are solved at the right time. With that, the customers are retained in the organization, and this is an indicator that they are satisfied.

The Requirements of a Successful TQM Program

Several factors have to be considered in developing a total quality management initiative in an organization. One is on commitment and understanding from the workers. In other words, the employees have to know about the concept, what it does and what they are expected to do in implementing it (Mellat-Parast, 2013). Letting them know the goals of the business is also needed so that they align their work with the set objectives, among which is the use of TQM programs. However, most of the organizations have been unsuccessful in involving the workers, which in its turn have led to failure. The case is mainly due to the issue of commitment. For the program to succeed, and therefore benefit the organization, policies have to be continuously implemented. This requires the workers to be well informed.

The other requirement is that the culture of the organization should give room for quality and continuous improvement. For quality improvement to be ensured, employee’s feedback is necessary (Ross, 2017). Since they are the people who interact with customers and thus understand what is required for quality services to be given. Accordingly, for quality improvement to be ensured, business manager has to listen and consider the aspects raised by the employees. In providing continuous improvement, on the other hand, it means that the organization as a whole is working to move forward. The TQM programs insist that changes have to be done in the organizations, saying that it is a continuous process. Thus, the organization has to make use of research and other data collection methods, to develop ways of making improvements in the organization, for the TQM program to function.

 Furthermore, for developing TQM programs it is necessary to focuse on the customer requirements. The current market dictates that for a business to retain and attract customers, the goods and services offered should have zero defects. This is to say that the lifespan of an organization is based on the type of services one gives the customers. For example, they should be kept close and happy, so that they stick to the organization. Otherwise, they would leave for other businesses that offer quality goods. Therefore, prioritizing the welfare of the buyer is an element that has to be present in total quality management. The feedback given by the customers is the central determinant of the level of quality offered by the company. Having an active control is the other aspect needed in developing a TQM program. This refers to the ability of the organization to monitor performance after a certain period. By that, weaknesses are identified and the ways to handle them in making sure that quality goods and services are given. Organizations that monitor their functions manage to identify risky elements that would affect the organization and to solve them on time. Therefore, quality is provided at all times.

Barriers to TQM Implementation and Recommendations

Despite the benefits realized from implementing the total quality management programs, several challenges are common that hinder many organizations from fulfilling the tool. One is on the existence of competitive markets. Most of the organizations reduce the quality standards to the least acceptable level. It means that they would produce low-quality goods, as long as their produce is ranked the best. The situation has been caused by a misunderstanding of the right meaning of quality. In the end, most of the organizations assume that high prices are similar to quality goods, which is not the case. In curbing this, organizations should make certain that quality is ensured in every area of the company. Instead of concentrating on the quality of the goods only, the concern should be shown in every department. With that, waste would be reduced leading to quality but not expensive goods.

The other barrier is the lack of quality leadership. The case has led to excess leadership allocations, which has led to duplication of duties. In its turn the condition has led to the workers in the lower levels assume that it is the responsibility of the management to ensure total quality management. As a result, lack of cooperation and teamwork in the business affects the implementation of the TQM.

Besides, there is the problem of insufficiency of cultural dynamism, which involves the culture of an organization. Notably, every business has its ways of doing things, which dictates the way the people interact and achieve their goals (Talib & Rahman, 2015). However, the organizational culture has to be flexible, to handle changes in aspects like economy, politics, and technology. Inflexibility has been a challenge in implementing the TQM programs because most of the businesses are too rigid. The inadequacy of the resources needed in total quality management is the other challenge. Most of the organizations, do not consider quality while strategizing and budgeting. As a result, human and financial resources lack lead to problems in implementing the programs. Most companies prioritize higher profit margins, and quality is left out. For example training of employees, a requirement in TQM initiatives is taken to be an optional activity. In preventing this, companies should include quality while strategizing, to ensure that the resources needed for total quality are available in the organization.

Besides, there is the problem of reduced focus on the customers. Instead, most organizations are concerned with profit margins and the time to be taken in having the aimed profits. Notably, the businesses are aware that quality attracts more buyers and thus higher profits, but they do not want to follow all the needed elements, because the aim is to earn. This means that an organization would claim that it has achieved its goals if the profit aimed is gained, even where the customers have not been provided with quality goods. In avoiding this barrier, organizations have to put the needs and demands of the customers first before their goals. Poor planning is also noted as a problem, in cases when organizations do not develop strategies. Where some refuse to plan because they do have much knowledge about quality, others assume despite knowing. As a result, the issue of quality is left out, because it is not pronounced in the planning stage. With poor planning, an effective way of measuring performance is missing, indicating that quality is not prioritized. In avoiding this, quality should be primary considered, just like any other aspect in the organization.

Management of TQM Change as a Positive Factor and Learning Approaches Summary

The management of whole quality aspect is a decisive factor and thus should be implemented by organizations due to various reasons. The concept is made up of hard and soft elements as explained by (Vakola & Petrou, 2018). The hard elements ensure that there is a continuous improvement, which is useful to organizations determining their global capability. The soft, on the other hand, relate to human factors, for example leadership, human resources, and strategic planning. From the two types of elements, it is evident that the total quality management programs handle both the internal and external environments of an organization. This makes it a positive model, as it ensures that the organization is functioning well internally and also becomes competitive externally. The issue of quality  is one of the major elements that must be present in a company to perform well, however, most of the organizations do not put the aspect as a priority, meaning that the TQM programs remind the organizations of what is needed in the current market. 

Three learning approaches are used in implementing the total quality management initiatives. One is management training, which refers to directing the leaders in organizations to act in a certain way (Mahmood, Qadeer, & Ahmed, 2015).  The learning approach is highly utilized while dealing with total quality management, as the leaders have to be informed about different things. For example, they are trained in how to deal with workers, mostly in the aspect of engaging them, budgeting and resources allocation and other roles that they have to play. The other learning approach is management development. In this case, the leaders are equipped with skills that would enable them to have self- development that is useful to the well-being of the company. For example, where a leader is trained in how to communicate with people, the skill is useful in making the person relate well with the other leaders, and thus ensuring development. Lastly, there is the learning approach to organizational development. Where the leaders are trained and directed on how to develop their skills, it is evident that organizational improvement would be noted. From the three learning approaches, it is evident that the implementation of the total quality aspect dictates that the leaders have to be well trained so that they direct the other stakeholders like the workers in the right direction.

Cultural and Ethical Elements of Going Green Technology Inc. in Improving TQM Efforts

The culture and ethics that an organization has, determine whether managing the total quality aspect is possible or not.  The Going Green Technology Inc. is an organization that produces systematic processes for the companies that wish to “go green”. However, the company has not been active in ensuring improvement and quality growth. One of the factors that have contributed to this is the culture in the organization. Most of the senior leaders claim that fixing should only be planned where breakage is experienced. This is to say, that the aspect of the competitive market affects the company, where the leaders are concerned in offering the accepted limit of services. The leaders are rigid, meaning that it is difficult for them to accept changes, which is one of the elements in total quality management. With this problem, the learning approach of management training is necessary for this organization. It would help in training the leaders on how to accept and ensure changes whenever necessary to improve the quality and performance of the organization.

If the culture of the leaders in this organization is changed, it would be easy directing other stakeholders into being flexible as well. As said above, total quality management is a continuous process, which insists on an effective relationship between the leaders and the workers. Since the aim of the organization is to implement the TQM programs, it is clear that the first step is changing the culture of the leaders and the organization as a whole. The other aspect to consider is ethics. Notably, there is a close relationship between ethics and how well the total quality management is ensured in an organization. Even though the concept deals with the quality of goods and services, personal ethics is a matter. For example, the employees have to act morally right, to meet the objectives of the organization. Considering the company in this case, ethics is an issue. For example, the leaders believe that changes should only be done where problems have been pointed. They, therefore, uphold the ethics of personal consideration and not the long-term welfare of the organization. Thus, both the culture and the ethics should be considered, if the total quality management is to be implemented in the company.


Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Jiménez-Jiménez, D., Martinez-Costa, M., Martínez-Lorente, A. R., & Rabeh, H. A. D. (2015). Total quality management performance in multinational companies: A learning perspective. The TQM Journal, 27(3), 328-340.

Mahmood, S., Qadeer, F., & Ahmed, A. (2015).The role of organizational learning in understanding the relationship between total quality management and organizational performance. Pakistan journal of commerce and social sciences, 9(1), 282-302.

Mathew, G. K. (2014). Quality of Management Education: Customer Trust Perspective. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 11(2), 50.

Mellat-Parast, M. (2013). Quality citizenship, employee involvement, and operational performance: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Production Research, 51(10), 2805-2820.

Ross, J. E. (2017). Total quality management: Text, cases, and readings. US: Routledge.

Talib, F., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Identification and prioritization of barriers to total quality management implementation in the service industry: an analytic hierarchy process approach. The TQM Journal, 27(5), 591-615.

Vakola, M., & Petrou, P. (2018). An overview of the impact of organizational change on individuals and organizations: An introductory note. In Organizational Change.    (pp. 1-11). London: Routledge.

January 19, 2024

Business Economics

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