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The views of nationalism and empire vary among nations and individuals. Many people hold beliefs in various ideologies that influence how they engage and what they want out of life. Similar to this, various nations around the world have demonstrated various social, economic, and political ideologies. The issues encountered during the 19th and 20th centuries were caused by the disparities in philosophical approaches among countries. I think nationalism, imperialism, war, and communism played a larger role in world peace, stability, and problems because I was born in Germany and experienced and saw the events that made it what it was. As Hans Lederhosen, I believe the world can be a better place when we use our differences and capabilities as an advantage of solving world problems. In this conference and being part of the delegations to speak at the League of Nations, I believe the world can direct its efforts towards helping the communities have peaceful co-existence among them while also fostering ideological tolerance to varied ideologies. Our period characterizes nationalist, imperialist and communist ideas as well as war. The war between and among countries in the world has led to massive destructions, and the people should work toward ending the war whether physical or cold.
The most pressing problems the world face include war, economic crisis, health concerns as well as ethnic and religious conflicts. Different countries fight to gain absolute power of others while some countries in the world strive in becoming the world superpower hence the philosophy of imperialism. Such conflicts also affect the Germans in equal measure as other neighbors such as Italy, Russia, and France. Health problems are also some of the concerns that adversely impact on the world populace and hence the need for national integration to achieve long-term peaceful existence. The world should be geared toward the direction of protecting humanity for us to be in positions of solving the problems. The ideologies should create enemies but should rather be the differences that bound the world population together.
The 18th and early 19th century has and will characterize nationalism and imperialism ideologies that shaped the world leading to series of political and economic competition (Beveridge 617). The period also entails stiff ideologies between nationalists and imperialists. It is essential to have a distinct view of the two ideologies, nationalism and imperialism. Nationalism entails a way of thinking socially and politically while creating a unified society that embraces their history, languages, religions, and culture. In the previous years, establishing a nationalist community resulted in various effects, some of which were adverse while some were positive. Mostly the western countries led the ideologies of imperialism in the 19th century (Beveridge 617). It involves the act where one country extends its rule or power over another nation. It had series of effects to the world as it brought better and worse changes to many countries across the world. The impacts of imperialism were mostly witnessed in Africa.
Nationalism fostered a series of events across Europe and the rest of the world. As such, the Bloody Sunday became a significant impact of Nationalism, starting as a peaceful march in Petersburg to the Winter Palace and turning to a nightmare (Trigger 355). The objective was to help in establishing an eight-hour workday for the Petersburg workers, establishing minimum wage as well as assembling a constitution in Russian. The entire match turned to be a bloody day, Sunday with riots and deaths in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Consequently, there was a short-term solution, which was giving them the constitution. This was a show of the spirit of nationalism. Besides, the Italian Unification fostered a significant impact on Nationalism. When Austria invaded Italy, the troops from the French government helped the Italians hence defeating the Austrians in the war of Magenta and Solferino. The biggest impact of Nationalism involved the redrawing of the European Map hence the conflicts to settle the new territories. As such, the boundaries still hold hence the effect of due to the impact of nationalism.
Imperialism got support from economic and political strategist. As such, boosting the economy entails opening markets in different areas of the world (Trigger 357). Achieving imperialism entailed getting resources from other countries through either colonization or coercion. The resources were mostly found in Africa and Asia. Besides, the desire for power, as well as security for the military, was also among the reasons for Imperialism. Having control over distant lands for militarily initiated the need for imperialism during times of war. Racism on Social Darwinism is also a key factor contributing to Imperialism. It fosters the philosophy of survival of the fittest making the Europeans believed they were the mighty race. Imperialism worsened the economic and political competition between various European states creating another issue to deal with.
There was widespread of revolutions across Europe in 1848 as the nationals of different countries fostered nationalistic goals such as during the time when Germany and Italy came together as well as during the fight against Russia (Document 12.10). The revolutions led to the liberation of certain countries in Europe such as Poland. Notably, political, social and economic achievements characterize the goals of nationalism. The period also shows the establishment of the French political unity and direction.
The 1800s also made many Europeans support imperialism for different reasons. To investors, it was an avenue of increasing their wealth while soldiers supported it as a means of getting jobs (Kipling 603). The Patriots of the countries believed it offered a feeling of being better than other nationals hence needed to rule and civilized the world. The people considered the white race as being superior. Another event that characterized the period was the scramble for Africa. The imperialists from Europe extended their rule to African to get resources, cheap labor, and extend their political influence to that part of the world (Document 13.3).
In the late 19th century, India was the most important country for the British Empire. The early 17th century led to a situation where Japan adopted a policy of isolation and hence did not trade with the west until 1853 when the U.S. forced trade deals with the country. Isolationist policy in this regard entails not making deals with all countries. 19th and 20th century were also a period of war between different countries.
Japan was engaged in war with the United States from the beginning of 1941 while also involving itself in conflict with the Chinese government ((Trigger 361). Different policies for these nations were the cause of the wars. The massacre became a renowned war that the Japanese troops engaged in leading to the death and execution of over 300,000 individuals. Besides, after the First World War, the second world war became the most significant period of the 20th century. It characterized major leaps in technology. It founded social changes in the post-war such as European colonialism, the United States civil right movements and exploration of outer space. The war began in 1937 when the incident about Marco Polo Bridge prolong the war that existed between China and Japan as well as when Germany invaded Poland in 1939. Different countries joined the war depending on their areas of interests and ideologies.
Another event that shaped the world was communist ideals. It was an economic-political philosophy that aimed at ending the feelings of capitalism, which was believed to be exploitative. The ideology became a dominant political philosophy of different countries across South America, Eastern Europe, Asian and Africa. The ideals began to develop in Russia in late 19th century. 1917 showed Bolsheviks seizing power via the October Revolution. The policy of the ideology is to nationalize all public property, factories, and railroads under the control of the government. Countries such as China have employed the philosophy for a long time in running its people and government.
There were many changes during the period of the 19th century. Nevertheless, non-carbon-based production and agriculture continued to be the fundamental components of most world economies such as Europe. Britain embraced the changes before countries such as Holland and Italy, which had a large population working on the land. Empires became essential sites of political authority until the start and end of World War 1. The empires and political leadership in Germany and its neighbor employed different political and social ideologies. Most social hierarchies remained resilient.
The intensification of various development and improved interactions characterize global modernity during the era. As such, increasingly dense connections between communities led to the social configuration of different societies. However, the late 19th century showed social, economic and political gaps between societies ((Trigger 359). Countries with industrial power, various forms of bureaucratic organizations, infrastructures, and industrial power took advantage over the nations with limited access to such power hence the change of world ideologies. The differences resulted in the emergence of a hierarchical world order, which defines the key engagement of the 19th century with the contemporary world. The existent changes and differences between various countries across the world were the foundations of different forms of ideologies such as nationalism, communism, war, and imperialism.
In conclusion, many countries and people have different perspectives of nationalism and imperialism. Such believe in various ideologies that shape their interactions and goals in life. In the same way, various countries across the world have shown varied social, economic and political philosophies. The 18th, 19th and 20th centuries characterized nationalism and imperialism ideologies that shaped the world leading to series of political and economic competition. It also encompasses series of communism ideologies and war as outlined above. Furthermore, different events and changes shaped such periods.
Beveridge, Albert. Defense of Imperialism. (1972).
Kipling, Rudyard. White Man's Burden. National Phonograph Company, 1997.
Trigger, Bruce G. "Alternative archaeologies: nationalist, colonialist, imperialist." Man (1984): 355-370.
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