Cultural Care Diversity Theory

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This is paper about two case studies that are concerned about Trans-culture nurse theory.

The first case study is about a patient by the name Mrs. Franklin Jones who was admitted in hospital and was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Under this case study, the paper will explain the factors to be considered by nurses when planning for patients discharge using Leininger's culture care model. Explain the significance of cultural care diversity theory in providing nursing care to patients. Under this case study, the care plan for Mrs. Franklin Jones will be developed, and the limits and limits of the Leininger's theory will be discussed.

The second case study is about a patient by the name Claude Jean Baptiste who was recovering from post-hip replacement surgery but was transferred to a rehabilitation institute where the in charge nurses were unfamiliar to his language and were forced to use a translator.

Under this case study, the paper will discuss transpersonal caring relationship assumptions and the role of nurses. Watson definition of the word love and its evidence in the caring moment. The article will lastly explain how nurses use self to create a healing environment and the limitations and strengths of Watson's theory.

Keyword: transpersonal caring relationship, Watson's theory, caring moment, Leininger's theory, culture care diversity

The following factors should be considered by Nurse Hernandez when planning for the discharge of Mrs. Franklin-Jones using Leininger's culture care model.

Leininger's model is the practice and study of exercises that get involved with the relative cultural cares and also including practices, beliefs, and values of various people with different or similar cultures (Nemec & Carmicheal, 2016). Transcultural nursing is concerned with provincial of culture-specific and universal nursing care services for patients when affected by different types of diseases through culturally meaningful ways. In the case of Mrs. Franklin, the nurses are supposed to be flexible in the designing of the care policies and programs that meets the demands of this patient since she is from a different culture. The nurse must be competent in intercultural communication and be aware of the patient's cultural requirements. Nurse Hernandez should develop and implement strategies that are culturally acceptable to the patient's conditions when providing nursing care. Also, Nurse Hernandez must be capable of understanding the social and cultural reality of Mrs. Franklin and plan accordingly. Under this case study nurse Hernandez should consider Mrs. Franklin inability to take the medication according to the prescribed time. The patient has inadequate time to relax her cultural values moreover restricted her from being prepared food by Tomas. The patient did not also follow the nutritional strategies prescribed to her by her physician regarding her health status. Hence the nurse in charge must consider these factors before planning for Mrs. Franklin release.

The significance of culture care diversity theory in providing nursing care to patients

Cultural care diversity theory is significant in various ways. This theory enables individuals and nurses to respect and understand beliefs, diversity of culture and values of different patients concerning patients' disease treatment, outcome, and causes. The theory is also significant in the current world due to an increase in the global population hence increase in individuals' cultural diversity thereby making it difficult for healthcare providers to provide personal healthcare. Nurses are required to recognize and embrace patients' cultural diversity and healthcare values. In the current world, nurses are required to culturally competent to improve patient satisfaction and outcomes. This theory also strengthens nurse commitment concerning the care for the suffering patients (Nemec & Carmicheal, 2016).

Development of a care plan for Mrs. Franking using the cultural care diversity theory of Leininger

Mrs. Franklin care plan should consist of the following: Nurse Hernandez should determine Mrs. Franklin health belief that might have resulted in ill-health of the patient. The patient believed that lousy pressure resulted in her illness. Hence the care plan should be made in a manner to help the patient minimize her stress. The nurse should collect the patient information concerning different home remedies that the patient consume to treat her illness, and in our case, this involves the bush tea. And advice Mrs. Franklin accordingly. Nurse Hernandez should also understand the effect of the social relationship, ethnicity, culture, and race towards her health. In this case, Mrs. Franklin did all of her work leading her to have stress. She also has an eating habit according to her culture. Thereby, the care plan should plan nutritional strategies per patient culture. The patient should be advised on the best eating habits and patterns. And on the appropriate type of food to consume according to her state of health. The nurse should also collect relevant information concerning the patient's socioeconomic status which affects the health wellness and promotion of Mrs. Franklin. According to Mrs. Franklin case, she did not have adequate time between her working intervals. The care plan should advise this patient on the appropriate working intervals and resting intervals. Lastly, the care plan should inform the patient on the resting intervals after her dismissal from the hospital. The program should also restrict her from doing a specific type of activities that require a lot of energy.

The advantages and disadvantages of Leininger's theory

Leininger's theory has various benefits which include the following: it's concerned with the provision of culture in the nursing care of different patients. It enables the nurse to be culturally sensitive and conscious regarding various cultures of individuals and respond to their needs accordingly based on their cultures (Nemec & Carmicheal, 2016). The theory majorly emphasizes the care of nursing towards patients contrary to other approaches. And it helps nurses to apply the model and concepts of this theory in various healthcare settings. The method is advantageous since it can be used in multiple situations, it is readily applicable, and it focuses on the care universalities and world ethnic care diversities. The limitations of this theory involve the following: the method has resulted in numerous errors affiliated to a clinical decision which affects misperceptions and the values of the patients about the outcomes. The data collected might not be used to all patients since each client is unique. According to this theory, nursing concepts get based on consistent ethnic care without considering the provision of holistic care. It also doesn't focus on the symptoms and the disease.

Assumptions of Watson's theory, the roles of nurse, and Watson definition of the word love

According to Watson, transpersonal relationship had the following assumptions. Caring can be demonstrated conclusively and accomplished only through interpersonally. Caring involves various creative elements which lead to the gratification of specific individuals' needs (Smith & Parker, 2015). Operational caring supports health and family or individual growth. Caring responses accept individuals from what they might become without reconsidering their current health situations and lastly, caring is more complementary compared to curing. Nurses have various roles concerning the transpersonal caring relationships. Nurses are required to reflect and explore their responsibilities and objectives to provide optimal care. They also have healing and caring roles, and they are required to have full knowledge about the life dynamics and phenomena. Watson defined love as an infant's automatic response when caressed lightly or patted. They respond positively to these caresses with laughs, smiles and various affectionate reactions (Smith & Parker, 2015). Love is evident in this caring moments in multiple ways. Mr. Claude Jean Baptiste gets welcomed in the transferred rehabilitation institution with signs written with different language including his own native language Creole to familiarize himself with these signs. The hospital also uses various translation lines for translation services since the nurses that were in charge of that shift were not familiar to the Creole language. Love is also evident in this case study whereby Mr. Claude Jean Baptiste is asked about his culture and customs that might honor him and even encourage to bring spiritual care items and food to share his cultural diversity with the nursing staff. This case study reveals how love is evident in the caring of Mr. Claude Jean Baptiste since he is asked to carry and perform various activities that result in the affirmative, affectionate responses by the patient.

How can the nurse creatively use self to create a healing environment?

Nurses can creatively use self to create a healing environment in various ways. Nurses can exercise patience and kindness in the framework of caring conscious. They can improve and endure a trusting, and a helping relationship with the patients. Supporting patients' spiritual practices and transpersonal self that gets beyond patients self-ego (Rakel, Sakallaris, & Jonas, 2018). Being present and supporting the expressions of negative and positive feelings among the patients. Lastly, nurses can create a healing environment by engaging in learning and teaching experiences whose main aim is to attempt to improve patients understating of their health conditions and the importance of various medical operations performed (Rakel, Sakallaris, & Jonas, 2018). And creating a healing environment at all levels, whereby dignity, comfort, beauty, peace, and wholeness get portrayed.

Strengths and limits to Watson's theory

Watson theory has numerous advantages. The model has brought the aspect of caring to the nurses. Thereby restoring patients inner healing, and harmony. The approach also enables nurses to be flexible in their duties by allowing them to exploit their various interaction methods with their multiple patients. It has also enabled nurses to modify their style and approach regarding the care based of each patient as a different entity. Lastly, the model enabled nurses to have transpersonal occasions with the admitted patients (Smith & Parker, 2015). Watson theory has various weaknesses. The method lacks relevancy in the current nursing due to the increase in the patient ratios and the acuteness of diseases. The theory is concerned with the spirit and does not emphasize the patients' physical entities hence making it unpractical to nurses whom primary focus is on the treatment of diseases and the physical aspects. The model is also impractical in the current healthcare setting since it concerned with health care that is impossible in the healthcare environment due to development of technology and lack of insurance covers among the patients hence minimizing the time spent in hospitals. Lastly, this model requires a lot of financial resources and training to rebuild and restructure the current health systems into a focused healing system.


Nemec, R., & Carmicheal, C. (2016). Application of Leininger's Theory of Transcultural Nursing into Practice. Hemodialysis International, 8(1), 19-109.

Rakel, D., Sakallaris, B. R., & Jonas, W. (2018). Creating Optimal Healing Environments. Integrative Medicine, 85(4), 12-192. Retrieved from

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Chapters 16-18.


October 13, 2023


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