The Theory of Culture Care Diversity

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Mrs. Franklin-Jones is being admitted to the cardiac step-down unit after spending a week in the emergency room. She talks to the nurse about her condition and her family. From the Leininger’s Culture Care Model, social, economic and educational factors should be considered by Nurse Hernadez when planning for Mrs. Franklin-Jones’ discharge. On social factors, the lady indicates that she has adequate family support. Thomas and her sister would be available to offer the necessary care such as cooking at home. Mrs. Franklin-Jones’ story shows that she has a busy work schedule where she takes two jobs. This indicates that Mrs. Franklin-Jones is not financially stable. She has professional positions which suggest that she is well educated and has a reading culture as she is ready to learn how to cook differently to adjust her diet to suit her medical needs. These factors should be considered when planning for her discharge.

Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality entails understanding cultural differences concerning nursing practice with the aim of providing efficient nursing care services to individuals according to their culture and medical needs (Leininger, 2002). This is important as it considers the fact that various cultures have different caring values, beliefs, and behaviors. Additionally, when cultural values are considered in the health care system, the nurses determine and understand the factors that played a role in the occurrence of the illness. This helps in developing the most efficient care plan for the patients.

A Care Plan for Mrs. Franklin-Jones

Nursing intervention


Administer medication

Provide the woman with the appropriate medication to ease the pain, regulate blood flow, and ease breathing. Advise her on the independent intake of drugs.

Pain management

Monitor and document pain levels of the lady as characterized by verbal reports and non-verbal signs such as moaning and rapid breathing. Help the patient describe pain on a scale of 0-10. This helps in determining the effectiveness of medical procedures.

Monitor activity tolerance

Record the heart rate and rhythm and blood pressure changes to determine the recovery progress. Review signs of activity intolerance.


Encourage the patient to have enough rest and report any medical concern or symptom that may require health worker assistance. Emphasize on the reduction of the individual risk factors that could have adverse effects on the cardiovascular function as they may hinder recovery.


It is important to offer information to the patient regarding the resumption of activities and work. Emphasize on matters related to diet restrictions and lifestyle. Educate her about the appropriate relaxation and distraction techniques in responding to pain and coping with pain. Provide information in various forms such as oral talks, brochures, magazines, and books. Educate her on self-care skills.

Strengths of Leininger's Theory

Firstly, the approach integrates culture into the health care services (Leininger, 2002). This makes the nurses conscious of the different needs and hence able to develop a care plan that suits the patients. With this knowledge, a nurse handles the individuals well which improves the nurse-patient relationship. A positive relationship translates to excellent services and quick recovery. Secondly, the theory can be generalized making it applicable in many different situations. The factors considered in the Leininger’s theory are general, and hence it is suitable. Also, the theory is simple to understand and apply. The concepts and theory behind this model are easily understood, and their applicability is also straightforward. For this reason, Leininger’s approach is easy to incorporate into any medical care provision scenario.

Weaknesses of Leininger's Theory

Firstly, this theory focusses on the cultural differences and not on the medical expertise. In the treatment of patients, nursing knowledge is essential, and Leininger’s theory does not put it into consideration (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2016). According to this theory, nurses are required to understand the culture of patients which may not be possible in some cases. Also, generalized culture beliefs and practices may not apply to all patients. People may have their own unique beliefs. 

Case Study Two

This case presents a patient recovering from a post-hip replacement surgery. Claude Jean-Baptiste is transferred to the Rehabilitation Institute. The Transpersonal Caring relationship theory asserts that nursing focusses on preventing illness, promoting health, caring for patients, and restoration of health (Cara, 2012). According to this theory, caring is an essential aspect of the nursing practice. The theory is based on seven assumptions. Firstly, Watson indicated that a caring practice is central to nursing (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). The theory also assumes that effective caring is practiced interpersonally where a patient-nurse relationship is positive. Additionally, caring in nursing is composed of carative factors that satisfy human needs. Also, caring is essential as it promotes health and growth of people and their families (Cara, 2012). The other assumption of the theory is those good caring responses should accept the sick in their conditions and how the illness may change them. Another premise of this theory is that a caring environment allows the sick to choose the best actions for themselves at any point (Sitzman & Watson, 2013).  Lastly, Watson assumed that the science of caring complements that of curing and hence both are equally important in health promotion.

The role of the nurse as indicated by Watson is to develop a caring relationship with sick people, offer unconditional acceptance, and spend time with the patients, what are referred to as the caring moments (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). Also, the nurse should promote health and employ a holistic approach to treatment. Watson defines love in the concept of the caring moments where a nurse establishes a positive relationship with the patient (Cara, 2012). In this case, encouraging Claude to bring spiritual items and share with the nurses show love. Having the interpreter and a relative during the caring process is also an act of love by the nurses. 

The nurse can creatively create a healing environment by being present with the patient, practicing love-kindness, and offering the necessary support. This creates a positive, caring, and trusting relationship between the sick and the medical staff. Also, cultivating the patient’s spiritual practices can be a right way of creating a healing environment.

Strength and Weaknesses of Watson’s Theory

The primary strength of this theory is that it focusses on the patient which improves the service delivery. Also, patients in this theory are placed in the context of a family, and the nurses strive to develop personalized relationships which enhance caring practices (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). The major weakness associated with this theory is that it emphasizes on the psychosocial needs of the sick while neglecting the biophysical aspects of health promotion strategies.


Cara, C. (2012). A pragmatic view of Jean Watson’s caring theory. International Journal for      Human Caring, 7(3), 51-61.

Leininger, M. (2002). Culture care theory: A major contribution to advance transcultural nursing               knowledge and practices. Journal of transcultural nursing, 13(3), 189-192.        

Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P., & Hall, A. (2016). Fundamentals of Nursing-E-Book.   Elsevier Health Sciences.

Sitzman, K., & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson's          human caring theory. Springer Publishing Company.

October 13, 2023
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Case Study Patient Nurse

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