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The total costs and advantages of reduction differ: Caps and trading systems have been implemented, and substantial incentives have been provided to minimize emissions. If a corporation produces more pollution than the limit, it is permitted to purchase permits, which ensure that emission levels do not exceed the limit, therefore enterprises with more licenses outperform those with less permits (Dastbaz, 2015). In an emissions trading program, it is likely that firms with low marginal abatement costs will sell permits and firms with high marginal abatement costs will buy permits.
Permits allow a company to emit a certain level of a pollutant and company needs to buy more permits to exceed the limit (Sustainable, 2012).
30.5. A cap-and-trade system:
Does not require us to know the abatement cost: Companies incur penalties if they exceed the cap and this become stricter over time while trading gives them strong incentive to save money by reducing emissions (Moosa and Ramiah, 2016).
40.5. Interest groups spend millions of dollars on all of the following except?
Enforcing regulations: Interest Groups is a group of people that link people to the government. The group forces the government and influences the public policies in their favor. The only difference with political party they do not vie for positions in politics (Rozell, Wilcox, & Franz, 2012)
50.5. “Revolving door” refers to situations in which regulatory agency employees go on to work for the industry they are regulating, and vice-versa.
Revolving door results in policy decision concerning technologies that are biased, also the presence former industry personnel could adversely impact the public confidence in the regulatory decision concerning the new technology products (McCall, 2016).
60.5. Which of the following does not hold true for incentive-based regulation?
It avoids the problem of monitoring and enforcement: It is easier to minimize pollution of an environment through incentives these indirectly enforces rules and regulations. Incentives motivate companies to control their pollutants in the long run and short-term (Percival et al., 2013).
70.5. All of the following are market obstacles to clean technology adoption except?
Subsidies: existing markets pose a threat to the growth of the green technology, and moreover inadequate information concerning the technology lowers its growth. However, subsidies on the products for innovation is a great incentive to motivate investors to invest on it (Kirkwood & Longley, 2012).
80.5. The process of environmental regulation, in order, is:
U.S. Congress Passes a Bill; The EPA Drafts Regulation; State Governments Implement and Enforce Regulations: Congress passes the law with a target to that is to have clean air in the country. The Congress empowers the EPA to draft regulations on what companies must do, and after that, the Congress gives some money to the states to enforce and implement the rules (Makino, 2016).
90.5. The double dividend hypothesis suggests that a win-win scenario is possible when the government uses the revenues from environmental policy to:
Reduce inefficiencies in other markets or offset other taxes: The revenues should be used to support further effort to reduce pollution and fund unrelated public priorities who through investment will increase revenues to the government. Furthermore, the government should use some income to cut other taxes for instances the coal workers that they may be cautious about using other sources that result in more emissions (Countryman, Francois, & Romagosa, 2016).
100.5 All of the following are general obstacles to environmental regulation except?
Technological growth: Though mature technologies make it hard for green technology to rise fast they are not obstacles to environmental regulation development. Also, inadequate information concerning the green technology becomes a barrier to the development of the environmental technologies (Shally, 2016).
110.5. Which of the following is a method for promoting early-stage clean technology?
Fund research and development: To build capacity professionalism and skills are required. Therefore funding people to do research and develop new ideas can boost the early stages of clean technology (Geffen, Sexton, & Marcus, 2012).
120.5. To be promoted by the government, clean technologies should:
Be environmentally less destructive than existing technologies: because the primary aim of the state is to ensure the economy is stable and same time minimal pollution to the environment and through these, the government will tend to support the green technology more rather than imposing high taxes on other technologies (Judge, 2015).
Can be controlled by a tax system by varying the level of the tax in different regions: Tax revenues promote environmentally friendly energy technologies, for instance, wind power. Taxes act like incentives in the hot spot areas whereby the firms are encouraged to change their behavior by adopting technologies that reduce pollution at the lowest cost (Schmidt, (2011).
140.5. Most economists consider incentive-based regulation to be more efficient than command and control regulation.
True: The incentives encourage polluting entities to reduce pollution through these companies are rewarded for adopting pollution reduction into their firms, and this method solves the common complaint of command and control (Dupuy & Viñuales, 2013).
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Moosa, I. A., & Ramiah, V. (2016). The costs and benefits of environmental regulation.
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