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A,1. The first headword and sense of the Oxford English Dictionary best captures the meaning of the word gratings. Gratings in the sentence mean unpleasant and harsh sounds.
A,2. The two words ‘Awld man’ are used informally to mean one’s father. It is an affectionate term used between men or boys.
A,3. The word charabanc was first attested in the 19th century. It originates from a French word, char-à-bancs meaning ‘a carriage with benches’.
A,4. The adjective tremulous originates from a Latin word tremulus from tremere meaning tremble.
A,5. We would use the term Parallelism to describe the foregrounding stylistic device used in the phrase. This is repetition of linguistic structures more than normal to make parts of words identical to each other. It helps draw attention.
A,6. Devoured and identity. The two words formally describe the clothes and decorations, how they served to reduce the attractiveness of the women and rendered them less appealing like most of the other women around.
A,7. The word narky means irritable or bad tempered. It is an old-fashioned slang word used in Britain but derived from the Romany word for nose (nak).
A,8. The word clerk is best defined from the extract as a hotel receptionist (desk or sales clerk) or a shop assistant. The words are wishful thoughts of claim of manliness, as the work of a clerk is less manly.
A,9. Foregrounding is the scope of stylistic outcomes that appear in literature, whether at the spoken level (e.g. rhyme, alliteration) or the linguistic level (e.g. irony, metaphor).
It is a technique for making word(s) strange to attract the reader’s attention by deviating from the normal textual composition deliberately.
A,10. I would cite the textbook as follows:
Penhallurick, R. (2000) Debating Dialect. Cardiff: the University of Wales press.
B,1. A) The name of the first letter in the Old English word æton is a grapheme commonly known as ash as used in the extract.
B) The word hi in the extract can be translated to ‘they’.
B,2. The beginning is demarcated by the after-effects of the Norman Conquest in 1066 while the end is demarcated by the arrival of printing in Britain in the year 1476.
B,3. The Irish Gaelic belongs to the Goidelic indo-European language family that originates from Ireland and was anciently spoken by the Irish people. Printing was first introduced in England in the year 1476.
B,4. The characteristic of a word having the same grammatical etymology with another. For example, English Father, Latin pater.
B,5. Modern English is dominated by Anglic and Frisian languages.
B,6. Two modern English words of French origin are officer and pistol.
B,7. The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles was first published between 1884 and 1923.
B,8. –es and –d are two suffixes in modern English.
B,9. Amelioration is the changing of a word from depreciatory to neutral or certainly pleasant meaning. The word nice has been ameliorated from the previous sense ‘silly’.
B,10. The word litter has gone through narrowing of meaning. This occurs when a general meaning is by levels applied to a much more specific thing. Originally before 1300 litter meant ‘a bed’, it later narrowed down to ‘bedding’ then to ‘animals on a bedding of straw’ and lastly to bits and pieces scattered around.
C,1. From “…a soft kindliness, a frank steadfastness in his eyes that invited confidence.” there is presence of rhyme. The words kindliness, steadfastness and confidence have a common sound that creates emphasis on the description of the man. It renders a pleasant effect.
From the words “Could y’ go for me? Ah’m feared t’ death. Eeee, y’ don’t know what a relief it’d be if on’y y’d. ” there is parallelism as the writer deliberately leaves out letters to the word you and does that repetitively to draw attention.
C,2. Engineer and plant reflect the use of formal register. Register is an assortment of a language used in a particular context or for a particular reason while etymology is the analysis of the source of words and their evolved meanings throughout history. In etymology the registers of words have been changing from the ancient times to date.
C,3. The formal voice is less wordy and portrays a confident tone. There is also a form of authoritativeness from the narrator’s voice. The sentences are mostly long and intricate. Each word the narrator uses in the citation is well constructed and solemn and brings about the sense of surety. On the contrary the informal voices of the imagined character uses casual words with deliberate taking out of letters in words to convey a sense of slang dictation. The sentences are short and simple.
C,4. Larry had positive relationship with other people as noticeable from the extract. He had an immediate relationship with people as they would approach and depend on him to complete tasks for them reliably and without fail. This is evident from the extract “Could y’ go for me? Ah’m feared t’ death. Eeee, y’ don’t know what a relief it’d be if on’y y’d”
Larry also had a political relationship with people. In his capacity as an engineer he had convincing powers and took up responsibilities in leadership by coordinating the overhaul of the crane. Individuals also respected him as from the words they spoke of him.
C,5. Larry from Harry’s thoughts is seen as a reliable, amiable, compassionate courteous and a diligent character. He conveys reliability as he would take up tasks and finish them to perfection and without being late. He is considered amiable as everyone around him was his friend and he diffused warmth and friendliness. He showed compassion by taking up writing jobs from individuals who had challenges in writing and performing them for their sake. And in diligence he took great care in doing things to completion as seen in the narration.
C,6. The use of pen and ink describes the status of the character as facing a daunting task. The character does not look up to it and rather sees it as a stressor probably because of the strenuous input they have to put into filling up the forms into completion.
The use of the words ‘gigantic crane’ shows the status of Ned Narky as being able to take up huge tasks with ease on a normal day to day basis and Larry being able to supervise the work.
The word ‘plant’ is also used to convey Larry’s status as it shows he was partly relied upon to ensure the functionality and efficiency of the factory. He took up major responsibilities as seen in the extract without much of a struggle.
OED Online. December 2018. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/11125 (accessed December 17, 2018).
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