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The blood and vascular cell compatibility of heparin-modified ePTFE vascular grafts

The essay "The blood and vascular cell compatibility of heparin-modified ePTFE vascular grafts" discusses a method for grafting bioactive heparin and a potent anticoagulant glycosaminoglycan primarily to the lumen of ePTFE in vascular grafts to increase contact with vascular cells and blood. This is, first and foremost, the article's main goal.

Controlled release of heparin

Furthermore, the study contains a controlled release of heparin from electrospun materials in a bit to increase the risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, which can be lethal in certain cases (Hoshi et al. 30).

Combining heparin immobilization with anti-clotting agents

Additionally, for the researchers to further their argument, they use some promising approaches that combine heparin immobilization with anti-clotting agents such as thrombomodulin and nitric oxide, but the approaches may be prohibitive for commercial purposes.

Results of the study

The results of the paper were that there were no significant changes in the density of heparin surface over time. Primarily, the density surface of heparin after incubation for 28 and 14 days respectively was 37.4 +- 8.9 ng/mm2 and 35.5 +- 11.1 ng/mm2 respectively that was compared with 47.2 +- 14.6 ng/mm2 which was freshly prepared (Hoshi et al. 36).


The paper concludes by describing a new approach for vascular cell compatibility vascular grafts and impart heparin-mediated thromboresistance. Similarly, the report finds that the POC-Heparin_coated grafts during the study or research remained significantly and bioactive inhibited by the platelet adhesion and whole blood clotting.

Strengths of the article

The strengths of the article are that it use several methods to test the validity of the outcomes. Primarily, the article compares three test that is prepared during different intervals. One of the test takes 14 days; another takes 28 days while for comparison the researchers make use of a freshly prepared sample (Hoshi et al. 34). This enables the researchers to make adequate comparison between the three samples used in the study. Importantly, the article captures valuable data concerning the study such as the temperature under which the samples were kept. Similarly, the article states that the incubators containing the samples have a carbon dioxide level of 5%. Similarly, the authors of the report use numerical data that is reported as standard deviation and mean. Through the use of such statistics, it gives the article the validity it deserves. Likewise, the article makes use of its study rather than using other researchers' information and data. This is important as the researchers rely on their information and data, meaning that the discussion of the article is not influenced by other people's study but the study made by the researchers.

Weaknesses of the article

The weakness of the report includes that. The article does not make a comparison of its results with other similar studies. Relation to other studies makes the study have some validity as the researcher can make comparisons of the outcomes and indicate whether the results were similar or not. Similarly, the article does not state the number of the samples used in the study. Making use of many samples makes the outcome valid as compared to making use of one or two samples. The samples used in the survey were all put in the same conditions state, including the temperature and the carbon dioxide concentration (Hoshi et al. 36). Having the samples in different conditions is important makes the researchers have different outcomes that can enable the researchers to arrive at a definitive and informed conclusion rather than relying on samples prepared under the same conditions.

Works cited

Hoshi, Ryan A., et al. "The blood and vascular cell compatibility of heparin-modified ePTFE vascular grafts." Biomaterials 34.1 (2013): 30-41.

January 05, 2023

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