Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Research Essay

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The two agencies in issue, Homeland Defense and Homeland Security, each play a variety of roles that come together to serve a single goal. At all expenses, the purpose is to ensure public safety. The following are some of the roles that can be played in view of this shared goal:

Indeed, the department of national security is a sizable government organization. In terms of labor force, it has a little under 225,000 people. The consensus among critics is that managing such a sizable staff presents challenges. This is the rationale behind the department's administrator being selected carefully. In light of the above, the following are some of the roles of this vast department:

Protection of People against Terrorist Attacks

This role is usually regarded as the founding principal of the department. This primarily implies that the department’s principle purpose is to guard the state against terror attacks. The attacks in question have been known to cause the fatalities of countless numbers of individuals within a short period of time and hence they warrant attention (Michelson, 2015). Preventing terrorism is an act, which requires the co-operation of families, communities and every person who is part of the American society. Terrorist attacks such as the 9/11 attacks are known to be responsible for the deaths of countless individuals.

Securing the Borders

Securing the borders is done with the purpose of preventing external attacks, which may in turn wage war. It is also undertaken for the purpose of preventing illicit immigration or smuggling of goods in and out of the country by any means. Drugs and other illegal substances, which work hand in hand to threaten the safety of the citizens, are most targeted by this initiative.

Facilitation of Legal Immigration

The department is also charged with the responsibility of facilitating legal immigration. Legal immigrants who have fled their homeland due to natural calamities are taken into consideration. It is imperative to also note that the department is charged with ensuring that the legal immigrants who violate the state laws are duly deported back to their respective countries. All this is done with the common purpose of fostering safety.

To Facilitate Readiness against Natural Calamities

Despite the agency’s quest to ensure protection and safety, some happenings are beyond the control of the agency itself; these include natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes etc. The department therefore strives to make citizens everywhere ready in the event of a disaster occurrence. This readiness is usually executed through initiatives such as having proper protection equipment and counter strategies.

Unifying the Department

The roles mentioned above are directed towards safeguarding citizens. Nevertheless, the department also has a role to itself to ensure unity at all costs. Given the fact that the agency has a workforce, which is close to quarter a million personnel, division, and disunity is probable. Unifying is hence done in a bid to prevent occurrence of undesirable undertakings.

Homeland Defense

The department of homeland defense is charged with one major role, that is, to provide military support against forces which may work hand in hand to threaten the safety of citizens in the region in question. The president usually serves as the commander in chief of the armed forces. Therefore, all actions are solely based on the president’s instruction. The following is a more in-depth analysis of the aforementioned role and reasons behind its significant importance.

To provide Military Support

All countries have military departments, which serve to offer internal protection. The U.S military for instance is divided into four elements; these are the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and Air Force. The four departments are comprised of a total of 1.7 million men and women who are on active duty (Blackwell & Telis, 2015). The entire defense force is divided into portions, which constitute personnel who fight outside the country e.g. Marine corps, is a group with ships on foreign seas, and personnel who fight within the country. It is imperative to note that the defense department is also comprised of a total of 1.1 million civilian employees.

To Provide Backup in case of Emergencies

Another crucial role of the department is to render backup in case of emergencies, which may occur during times of war. To this effect, the department has over 1 million individuals who are put aside as members of the reserve components. Therefore, their role usually involves providing the necessary man-power in the event a disaster strikes and there is a cut in the number of able soldiers. The undertaking goes hand in hand to foster actualization of maximum security.

To ensure unity and proper coordination

Similar to the department of homeland security, the ministry of homeland defense also has a role to itself as a department. The function entails ensuring that the department remains unified and fights together for a common cause. It would be purely disastrous if they were to be divided amongst themselves since it would imply a weaker defense force, which does not share the same views. Since this division would likely threaten the defense force of a region, it is the work of the defense department to ensure that all operations are based on unity and togetherness, otherwise, disaster may strike.

Question 2

Various organizations collaboratively to support the departments of defense and homeland security. The institutions achieve the mandate through various means and methods which ensure that the resources which offered are properly utilized for the best results. Examples of these organizations include:

United States Citizenship and Immigration Services

The USCIS serves to ensure that immigrants are given proper treatment such that they end up feeling at home in the United States. It also avails accurate and useful information concerning immigrant related data and citizenship-related benefits. The principle purpose of this organization is to spread awareness on the potential benefits which arrive with the permission to become a U.S immigrant or a U.S citizen. The benefits are indeed countless. In light of the above, the organization in question offers constant support to the defense forces.

United States Customs and Border Protection

The CBP forms one of the most crucial support points to the department of defense. Its main role revolves around ensuring that no smuggling of weapons takes place across the U.S boarder. This works hand in hand to ensure that terrorists and illicit arms are not present in the United States. The complex role of the organization hence makes it a crucial support component for the department of defense and the department of homeland security. The roles of this organization correspond greatly with the roles of the two departments in question.

Federal Emergency Management Agency

The FEMA agency works hand in hand with the department for defense to aid citizens in the planning and preparation against natural calamities. The calamities in question include floods, tsunamis earthquakes and many others. The department in question hence directly assists the department since one of its roles is to prepare against damages caused by the various forms of natural calamities. It is a crucial component of the department of defense and homeland security.

Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

When one talks of law enforcement, the image of police officers immediately come to mind. Law enforcement agencies are charged with maintaining law and order by bringing to justice, law offenders and the various criminal elements, which exist in a typical society. The institutions are also involved in detective work and forensic analysis. The aforementioned involvement helps them track down criminals and achieve insight regarding cases or crimes, which were previously committed. In light of all of the above-mentioned factors, one cannot fail to note the importance of this organization in promoting overall defense in collaboration with the two major organizations in question.

United States Immigration and Customs Department

The title of this support component greatly summarizes its role toward assisting the department of defense an also homeland security. It serves to ensure that illegal goods are not smuggled into the country. It pays special attention to drugs and illegal weapons since such items serve to directly threaten the safety of various citizens (National Security Strategy, 2010). The title also suggests that the department works to ensure that all immigrants within the country are legal and certified by the department. Since illegal immigration may expose the country to various threats, such a department is crucial in regulation of these aspects.

Transportation Security Administration

The transportation security administration works hand in hand with the agencies to protect the nation’s transportation systems and ensure that travel practices are conducted safely and with precision. In light of the above factor, the TSA is a pivotal component that aids the department of defense in delivering impeccable services of protection to the state (National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America, 2005). Road related crimes such as car theft and carjacking threatens the security of various citizens. Therefore, such a department is of much importance and relevance to the ministry of defense.

United States Secret Service

The secret service is a body, which is charged with safeguarding the nation’s financial structure and payment operations. This is solely undertaken purposely to build a stable economy and avert fraudulent practices such as theft, corruption etc. These practices serve to demean the safety of individuals financially and threaten the country’s entire economy. The agency aids the department of defense greatly.

Directorate of Management

The directorate of Management is a body whose role greatly coincide with that of the secret service. It is responsible for the approximations, budget and expenditure of funds. In addition to these, the department is also in charge accounting, finance, procurement, human resource management and ultimately information technology systems. This is basically a body which is well a suited form of management.


The two discussed departments play significant roles toward the overall process of ensuring that the nation is secure from various entities, which threaten human safety. The various support components also help in ensuring that this mission is actualized in the best way possible. In addition to protection and safety, these two departments assist in conducting immigration and stabilizing the economy. Therefore, the duo are crucial entities.



Blackwell, R. D., & Telis, A. J. (2015). Revising US grand strategy toward China. Council on Foreign Relations.

Michelson, J. T. (2015). The US intelligence community. Hachette UK.

National Security Strategy (2010).

The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America (2005).

July 15, 2023

Government Crime

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