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Any intelligence investigation identifies or eliminates the suspect by exploring information from the scene, tracing evidence, and utilizing social and psychological evidence tied, linked, and interlinked to the suspect and the scene. As a result, knowledge is essential for creating a successful criminal investigation. Interrogations and interviews can be used to gather information. The information acquired assists law enforcement authorities in categorizing and eliminating non-criminal causes of crime. Because criminals are deceitful, utilize elusive and diversionary methods, and are effective at concealing evidence, the process is difficult and requires high intellect. This also indicates the requirement of high level of intelligence in connecting various tactics employed by the criminals at the specific scene (Baker, 2005).
Scientific instruments are also critical in identifying the offender from the apprehended suspects. These instruments facilitate observation, recording, and measurement of evidence. Competent scientific search requires adequate and specialized training expertise that compliments scientific and legal requirements. The results of the scientific investigations offer substantial evidence that forms the basic and primary legal requirements. Accordingly, explaining this scientific evidence to the jury for conviction of the defendant requires a high level of intelligence in the field of behavioral investigation. The effective behavioral investigation requires critical thinking in developing necessary perceptions and attitudes that form a favorable investigative environment (Baker, 2005).
Legal provisions and law requirements should be integrated into intelligence investigation to ensure identification of the specific criminals who committed the crime. The investigator should prove each legal attribute of the offense committed by the defendant. Utilizing the motivation attributes that depicted by law offenders in previous crimes will assist the investigator to link the suspect to the existing physical evidence. At the advanced investigation level, investigators develop the analytical skills and behavioral science knowledge that help them to link the suspect to the crime committed (Baker, 2005).
Patrolling Violent Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impacts of Deterrence and Post-Treatment Effects of Displacement; Crime Reduction Relating to Intelligence-Led Policing
Increased criminal activities have called for a collaborative effort between law enforcement, the public, and community infrastructures like those related to public health, agriculture, telecommunication, banking, and energy. These sectors have become targets for terrorist activities and thus calling for the partnership with this personnel in crime control and terrorism prevention. These indicate that policies oriented to solve criminal activities in the entire society require a complementary and collaborative model that facilitates police partnership with community stakeholders (Peterson, 2005).
Intelligence-led policing is, therefore, the establishment of a collaborative enterprise aimed at improving community-oriented policing, problem-solving, and intelligence operations. Effective implementation of intelligence-led policing requires re-evaluation of current protocols and policies, incorporation of intelligence in the planning process to integrate issues and problems of the community, and making information sharing policy. Four levels of intelligence are used to design an effective plan of action. Level 1 entails the ideal scenario of intelligence-led policing and it is where the strategic and tactical intelligence products are formulated for various law enforcement agencies. At Level 2 the intelligence products are designed for internal consumption by police agencies. Level 3 includes a large number of law enforcement agencies. The last level has a few employees and utilizes personnel's like a gang or narcotic officers to design intelligence products (Peterson, 2005). The four levels involve various steps that facilitate incorporation of intelligence-led policing initiatives. The steps entail: formulation of mission statements, designing intelligence procedures and policies, encouraging information sharing, establishing the required security, and integrating the legal safeguards aimed at protecting civil liberties and public's privacy (Peterson, 2005).
Various techniques exist in the current intelligence-led policing to offer quality collection and analysis of data related to criminal activities. For instance, crime mapping uses geographic analysis of the criminal events where maps direct the law enforcement officers to place of residence of the criminals. In addition, they are used to identify special characteristics of offenders especially those connected with the serial murder, sex crimes, and burglary. Wall pin maps on second generation microcomputers facilitate a high a degree of flexibility aimed at supporting both tactical and strategic operations. The advantages of these pin maps include: increased flexibility offered by virtual pin map; enhanced ability to down to download the information to laptops or computers; improved storage of information, manipulation, and retrieval of data; provides increased opportunities to design computer maps by both police officers and crime analysts (Baker, 2005).
Intelligence is important in making decisions, strategic targeting, crime prevention, and planning. In the decision-making process, intelligence-led policing is utilized in analyzing the information collected at crime scenes to make informed and effective decisions. Planning also requires intelligence during identification and understanding of the crime problems. Intelligence is noble in strategic targeting especially with constrained resources to produce greater results and outcomes. In crime prevention, law enforcement officers are required to utilize intelligence from prior crimes around the locality or across the board. In such a case, the law enforcement agencies and criminal analysts can use indicators established in other localities to anticipate trends of criminal activities and design preventive measures to mitigate or intervene crime impacts (Peterson, 2005).
Baker, T. E. (2005). Introductory criminal analysis: Crime prevention and intervention strategies. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Peterson, M. (2005). Intelligence-led policing: The new intelligence architecture. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
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