Qualitative Research Design

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Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is a sub-branch of exploratory research. It is used by researchers to gain insight into the reasons and motivations for undertaking a research. Researchers use qualitative designs to come up with research questions and hypotheses to be used to conduct quantitative research. In this type of research, the researcher is the primary instrument of conducting data analysis. Much of this type of research is creative in nature as the researcher explores the meaning of the data involved. In most cases, data analysis overlaps data collection. This means a good researcher should be able to switch back and forth from data analysis and data collection in order to conduct a comprehensive qualitative analysis of the research question (Maxton, 2014).

Critical Appraisal of 'Caring Model: Putting Research into Practice' Study

The essay will focus on providing a critical appraisal of Darlene Amendoulair’s study 'Caring Model: Putting Research into Practice'. The study aimed at developing a caring model for institutions that took into account perceptions of what nursing meant to them and identifying the theories that would support such a model. Qualitative methods were suitable for her research. By utilizing data collection and analysis she is best suited to explore the attitude of the nurses through observation and collecting views using the questionnaire.

Research Problem and Study Purpose

Amendolair’s research problem is clearly stated. She tries to find out if a care model can be constructed that would visualize the caring beliefs of nurses in a large hospital, especially in a metropolitan area. The purpose of her study was exploratory in nature. The study purpose matches well with her qualitative design of the study. According to her, such a model should capture and merge central beliefs of nurse and the theoretical relations to help guide and increase the quality of nursing care. Her research was based on two questions which seek to know how the nurses perceive nursing and if the model was based on Swanson’s caring model. Both of these questions marry perfectly with a qualitative research design.

Research Design and Sample Population

Amendolair’s research is based on Swanson’s Care Theory. This theory was empirically established by conducting three qualitative studies based on different contexts. These contexts were caring for those who miscarried, newborn babies in intensive care units, and clinical nursing models project (Amendolair, 2012). She questions staff nurses to find out answer her research questions. She uses a non-probability sampling technique. Participating nurses were chosen based on their willingness and interest to contribute. They had to be actively practicing and from different departments in telemetry floors, medical-surgical units, intensive care unit, and outpatient department. Her sample included full-time nurses with different work experience, the setting is a hospital with a bed 290-bed capacity. This method can adequately help Amendolair in coming up with a good caring model. Her sample population is diverse in that she interviews full-time nurses with different years of experience and from different units within the hospital.

Data Collection and Analysis

She collected her data by posing open-ended questions to the participating nurses. The questions were focused on the nurses’ experience ranging from why they chose to do nursing, what keeps them in nursing, how they feel after giving care to patients to the kind of skills that demonstrated that one had good nursing skill. She recorded her interviews and transcribed them verbatim without their identifying information. She collected information on their years in nursing, education received, and the type of patients they handle in the hospital. She protected her participants’ personal information throughout the research. She encouraged them not to mention the real names of their fellow nurses or even patients during the course of the interview. The interviewees were comfortable when giving out information improving the quality and correctness of information augmenting the credibility and accuracy of her research.

Analysis and Findings

After collecting the data, she reviewed both transcribed and recorded interviews. She analyzed the participating nurses’ perception of what nursing meant to them using Swanson’s five processes template. These processes were based on knowing, doing for, being with, maintaining belief and enabling concepts which are a benchmark of a good caring based model for nurses. After her analysis, she was able to modify her model to support the nurses’ perception and understanding of what nursing meant to them and the importance of practicing nursing to both nurses and their patients. Her analysis is easily understandable to readers. This is because it is straightforward and helps solve the research problem. Her analysis has some limitations. She employs a pre-established template to analyze her data. This has the effect of biasing data since the researcher analyzes the data with expected results instead of remaining open and objective. Taking an open view in the analysis of the data would have made it more effective and improved the outcome of the research. Her analysis is also limited by the fact that some of her interviewers were inexperienced. This may have made it impossible to conduct in-depth expressions of the nurses who were interviewed. The focus of the research should have been more on experienced nurses to reflect better on the profession’s challenges and benefits over years with deep and engaging nursing care provision for a longer time period. The effect would have been more in-depth and extensive research on care provision.

Credibility and Presentation of Findings

Her data is largely credible. The participating nurses gave a personalized account in answering the research questions. They were under no pressure to give an answer leaning in any direction whether positive or negative. The data’s credibility is increased by the fact that the researcher withheld their identifying information for confidentiality. This meant that the interviewed nurses were in their true element in answering the questions. The nurses confirmed that they adhered to Swanson’s principles. Being and doing things for their patients was a common result from the interviews further cementing the credible nature of the findings. These show that the findings can be duplicated and applied in other hospitals.

Her findings are well presented within the context of the hospital. The accounts of the nurses interviewed were centered on finding solutions for the research problem. From the onset, the researcher has made it clear and easy for the reader to understand the results of the research. Swanson’s care theory, which forms the conceptual framework of the paper has been explained and supported throughout the research.


Her conclusion highlights the insights she got and understood what it meant to be a nurse. Even though her findings are downplayed by a number of limitations, the eventual concepts expressed by the nurses she interviewed are supported by ideas from other theorists. Her research amplifies the importance of caring in nurturing, consoling, and providing good care to patients by nurses. She concludes by recommending the visual model below to the nursing fraternity.


Amendolair, D. (2011). Caring model: Putting research into practice. International Journal for      Human Caring, 15(3), 49.

Cynthia, J. j., & Katherine, O. K. (2005). Analyzing Qualitative Data. Urologic Nursing , 217-   220.

Maxton, T. (2014, September). Swanson’s Theory of Caring. Retrieved from Arthur L. Davis   Publishing Agency. Inc: https://www.nursingald.com/articles/12244-swanson-s-theory- of-caring

October 13, 2023

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