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The unrestricted movement of people and products across international borders is referred to as globalization. Globalization is linked to unavoidable shifts in society, politics, and culture. In a world that is becoming more globalized, businesses, people, and governments are closely collaborating and advancing individual goals. Since globalization started with early efforts at trade and conquest, it is likely older than slavery. In the past, kings, traders, and explorers took to the seas to travel between countries in search of new lands and rare resources. Due to the few and inadequate means of intercontinental travel, the pace of ancient globalization was slow. (Ritzer 2013, p. 6). Travelers spent several days sailing on ships that moved slowly. The technological advancements that started during the industrial era initiated the start of the modern day globalization. The availability of fast ships and airplanes has made it easier for people to travel across borders. The movement of goods has also been easier with increasing technological advancement. Besides the excellent transportation means, the development of communication technology especially the computer and the internet platforms have enhanced the rate of modern globalization. The combined effects of advancing communication and transportation technologies have turned the world into a global village with closest links. Even though supporters of globalization acclaim many benefits, the negative implications are now evident everywhere across the world. Europe, the United States of America (U.S.A), Middle East, Africa, China, and South America are suffering from adverse effects of globalization. It is for such reasons and others that countries especially America should restrict globalization.
Overview of benefits of globalization
The global economy has improved significantly since the start of the "modern day globalization." The level of cultural, social, and political integration has also increased immensely. Local and regional companies have become multinationals, and the rate of wealth creation has been rapid (Nau 2017). Some countries perceived to have suffered little employments probably benefit from the slight decrease in unemployment. The level of knowledge exchange is also high. Product values have also increased because of the stiff competition characterizing the global market (Kenney and Florida 2004, p. 56). The rate of technological, social, political, and cultural innovations is astoundingly high. There has also been significant exploitation of natural resources for the sake of expanding wealth. However, in all the perceived achievements, globalization is destroying lives of the majority people.
Reasons for restricting globalization
As aforementioned, the general reason for wanting the restriction of globalization especially within America attributes to the way that the phenomenon has destroyed lives. It needs to be subject to limitations rather than furtherance. It is important to note that restricting globalization has to be a move to an individual country (Stager 2013, p. 17). The step cannot be a global decision because of the differing interests. A country like America that has suffered numerous challenges on the world stage should pursue the direction with haste. The reasons for advocating for the restriction of globalization are classifiable under the topic or areas that have faced significant challenges from the phenomenon that have affected the majority of the global population in negative ways. The topics or the areas of consideration include politics and international relations, security, economics, and culture.
Politics and international relations
Politics is a major tool of rule and influence over the people. The local politics lead to the establishment of international relations as countries pursue their interests past the limited borders. Globalization has made the world to charge for the policy considering that local politics in countries must feature foreign policies. Political contenders in states must clarify their international policies to convince citizens. In most cases, only the candidates that promise to achieve the interests of the citizens get the majority votes. For instance, President Barrack Obama promised the Americans that he would end the existence of American in the war-torn regions of Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran and return soldiers home (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2017). This policy featured strongly in his first presidential campaigns in 2007-2008. He also hinted and emphasized that he would pursue peaceful resolutions with the adversaries to reduce the frequency of involvement of America in global wars. The policy proposal sounded well with the American public, who agreed that war was destroying the country's economy. Americans also agreed that war was destroying the lives of soldiers especially those who sustained injuries (Jones 2010, p. 65). The families of the soldiers killed in war were and continued to suffer from psychological conditions.
The politics of international dominance are undoubtedly the reasons that former American Presidents notably George Walker Bush and George Washington Bush led the country into foreign wars. The Gulf War of 1991 is a typical case of the influence of globalization on the American international politics (Middle East Policy Council 2017). The extension of the Gulf War saw the United States of America (U.S.A) intervene through the "Operation Desert Storm." the Gulf War involved the Iraqi President Saddam Hussein attempting to conquer Kuwait so that he could control the country's rich oil fields. The battle began at around 1988 and Hussein had great determination in achieving his goals. As part of his fight, Hussein also challenged Saudi Arabia that defended Kuwait and targeted some of the Saudi's oil fields. The greatest goal of Saddam was to exonerate the Western Allies from the control of the Middle East affairs. He wanted to establish the stable Middle East because he knew the world depended on the region's oil. Controlling the oil would be a strategic step in clouting power over the entire world. It is worth noting that during the time, American and British companies like ARAMCO dominated the oil exploration activity in the region.
The American President George Walker Bush and Margaret Thatcher of Britain considered the works of Saddam Hussein as threatening to the international economy. Constitutional Rights Foundation (2017) clarifies that they also perceived that Saddam would use the issue of oil to control the global politics (n.p). The desire to control the situation culminated into the "Operation Desert Storm" ordered by George W. Bush against Saddam Hussein. It is clear that the main reason for the American involvement into the Gulf War was political. The country had the political interest of controlling the Middle East oilfield to exert its influence in the region.
The continued intervention of the United States (U.S) in the affairs of the Middle East and the Arab world, in particular, is drawing hatred for the country. A particular case is a discontent Saudi Arabia concerning the nuclear deal with Iran (Trump 2011, p. 5). Saudi considers the move as a political betrayal because it thought U.S was a close ally that would support its interests in the region. The level of distrust of Turkey towards the U.S is also increasing especially after the suspicion that the American-based cleric organized the recent attempted coup against the Turkish government. American has been supporting Israel to fight Palestine and reclaim Jerusalem (Chirico 2013, p. 221). Additionally, America has defended the Israeli occupation of Gaza and the war in Lebanon. The actions have not augured well with the Arab world, which believes that American is supporting the abuse of the rights of Muslims. Through the situations, the process of globalization is placing the U.S in an awkward position to balance its international relations. The politics of international policy appear confusing to the country because it lacks a solid stand and proper allies. The country is finding itself in a position of defending and hurting individual countries at the same time. For example, it hurts Saudi Arabia be claiming that it sponsored the 9/11 and by pushing the Iran nuclear deal, and supports it in the Yemen war.
The American policy to pursue the politics of international dominance saw it involve in the ouster of the President Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (Atlantic 2016, n.p). The administration of President Barrack Obama liaised with the NATO forces in 2011 to enter a fight in Benghazi with the goal of defending the locals from the assaults of the Libyan military. Eventually, the team managed to ouster the President, who died on the streets of the country's capital in the hands of the rebels. It is remarkable to note that America joined hands and helped the rebels in fighting the Libyan government. The level of the political mistake did not occur until later when it became difficult to establish a government in the country. After the fall of Gaddafi, the rebel groups that united against the regime started to fight for power. The situation has been dangerous because the lack of government in the country has caused inter-rebel battles. As the rebels fight, the country is becoming a breeding venue for terror groups like the ISIS that grows its strength in the country. Currently, not even America has managed to address a tip of the problem in Libya. In fact, even President Obama made a public admission that he made the greatest mistake intervening in the Libyan affairs (The Atlantic 2016, n.p). Considering such political situations, it is important for America to reduce its global ambitions and focus on national rebuilding.
Just after the ouster of President Gaddafi in Libya, the United States (U.S) turned attention to Syria, which was under siege and fierce protests by the opposition and rebel groups. America intervened in the Syrian conflict as a step to globalize democracy because it vowed to ouster President Bashar al-Assad. Unluckily, the Chinese and the Russians refused to sign the "No fly zone" treaty that worked to suppress the powers of Gaddafi. Acting out of desperation, U.S rallied the friendly states like Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, and Turkey to plan for an intervention strategy into Syria (The National Interest 2013, p. n.p). The American government then began to sponsor and train the rebel groups and the protestors. The move escalated the violence, and the disorganization led to the entry of the ISIS and other terror groups. The condition in Syria has been six years of constant fights. It is unfortunate that U.S some of the support given to the rebels landed in the hands of the terror groups, who have continued to terrorize lives in Syria and the neighbors (The National Interest 2013, n.p).
Since America lacks ground intelligence in Syria, it also decided to support the Kurdish fighters to fight against the ISIS groups. The move of supporting the Kurds was disadvantageous to the Turkish government. Concisely, the Syrian war has complicated international relations between U.S and Russia, Turkey, and Iran. The distress with Russia concerns the fact that while U.S fights the Assad's government, Russia fights the U.S-backed rebels. As mentioned earlier, problem with Turkey involves the support of the Kurds, who are the major rebel group against the Turkish regime (Tierney 2016, n.p). Essentially, the situation is complicated, and the U.S is becoming the greatest loser in Syria even as it serves the interest of globalization (Tierney 2016, n.p).
Every country considers internal security as one of the highest priorities. Nations struggle to build innate intelligence and safety then progress to developing the military power that form part of the national defense. The United States of America (U.S.A) has some of the world's best security system and institutions. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I) and the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A) are among the world's most revered and respected security organizations. They work to sustain internal security and pursue foreign intelligence. The American military is the most techno-savvy and incidentally, the leading. The military power is one of the reasons that U.S.A stands out as the Superpower. The position has made the country involve in many international battles and pursuits after terrorists organizations. It is undeniable that the country has achieved commendable success. The most remarkable achievement was the capture and killing of Osama Bin Laden. However, the continued globalization is exposing the country to greater threats of attacks. The security condition in Europe provides a view of the way America could be facing danger. In fact, some of the events in Europe have started happening in America.
The European Union has grappled with the issues of globalization, which involves accepting and dealing with refugees from war-torn countries like Syria, Somalia, Libya, Eretria, and Nigeria among others. In 2016, the issue of recognizing and admitting Syrians among other refugees and immigrants almost broke the European Union. The power of globalization convinced the refugees are running from persecution in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Eretria to run to Europe as the safest place (Vonberge 2017, n.p). The refugees are moving from poverty in countries as Albania, Kosovo, and Nigeria also view Europe as the bread field and place to realize the dreams. Globalization made the refugees leave their countries because of the surety that the level of global integration particularly through human rights would not fail them.
The doctrines of globalization as enshrined in the European Union code of Corporation, it was necessary that the member countries share the burden of the refugees and asylum seekers. However, there has been disproportionate distribution or admission of the refugees among the EU states. Since Greece, Hungary, and Italy are at borders, they have received many refugees. Italy and Greece have suffered most because they are the entry points into Europe used by many immigrants. The hope that the member countries would absorb the refugees dimmed. McCathie (2016) explains that Germany is the only country that had the open policy in accepting the victims of war, especially from Syria (n.p). Despite the resistance and reservations, many EU countries have absorbed a significant number of the refugees. However, the situation in Europe now has changed, and many regret ever accepting refugees.
Some of the immigrants in Europe have been responsible for the numerous terrorist attacks that have spread across Europe in the recent years since the refugee issue heightened in the continent. In December 2016, a person suspected to be Anis Amri, who was a failed asylum seeker from Tunisia, drove a truck that killed twelve people along a street near the Christmas market in Berlin. The police determined that the move was an act of terror. The Italian police found and shot the man four days following the attack. In October 2016, an assailant whom the ISIS claimed was their member stabbed a child in Hamburg, Germany (USA Today 2017, n.p). It emerged that the person was of the Middle East origin. In July 2016, two people with knives attacked a church in France, killed a priest and injured other three hostages. The French police killed the attackers. The ISIS claimed reported and confirmed their responsibility.
In June 2016, about forty-five people died and 240 others injured in an attack at the Ataturk Airport in Turkey. Istanbul, in Turkey, also suffered an attack in March 2016 that saw a suicide bomber killed five people and injured thirty-six others. Two of the dead people were Americans. During the same month, Brussels suffered two attacks that led to the death of 48 people, as hundreds sustained fatal injuries. The first incident involved two suicide attackers blowing themselves in a busy departure hall in the City's airport during peak hours. The first attack at the airport killed 32 people (Foster 2017, n.p). The second attack involved a bomb ignited inside a train in one of the full metro station. The second attack killed 16 people. The ISIS later claimed involvement in the attacks.
In July 2016, a Syrian refugee killed a pregnant woman using a machete in Reutlingen City, Germany. However, the police did not establish any terrorism motive behind the attack. On the same day, a Syrian man blew himself outside a festival in the southern City of Ansbach, Germany. He wounded about fifteen people attending the festival. It later occurred that the 27 years old man was a member of the ISIS group who arrived in Germany as an asylum seeker. The man also encountered police in many cases involving the use of drugs (Foster 2017, n.p). In fact, the German police deported him to Bulgaria at some point of the battles.
One cannot make a mistake by associating globalization to the recent explosion of terror attacks in Europe. The spirit of globalization softens the policies of countries that appear conservative and reject immigrants. The doctrine of the globalization of free movement of people that saw the European countries especially the United Kingdom (U.K) break its borders makes people move freely (Global Research 2017, n.p). The toleration of refugees from the countries with terrible terror groups opened the gate for a terrorist to penetrate into Europe. Countries like Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, and Romania that refused the concept of globalizing refugees in Europe have maintained their internal security (Charter 2016, n.p). No terror attacks have hit the mentioned countries even as the rest of Europe suffers.
The adoption of the principles of globalization has interconnected the global economy. The use of electronic fund transfer has increased the interconnection and inter-reliance. Currently, the global foreign exchange and stock markets are interdependent. The interdependency of the world financial market makes countries vulnerable to foreign distresses. For instance, the Europeans suffered the 2008 financial crisis because of the nature of globalization. Nearly all financial malpractices in America replicated in the European markets. The outburst in America replicated in Europe, and the entire world was in shock. Only the separated Islamic Banks endured the shock though not firmly. The globalization of the dollar ensured that all countries fell to the crisis to the point that no one could help the other.
The Euro zone crisis is another typical example of the economic dangers of globalization. The countries thought that opening their borders to free trade and the creation of a single currency would help them grow. Unfortunately, the move marked the beginning of the instability faced in the region. The significant trust saw the members borrow loans carelessly while hiding internal deficits. The loan default by Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal worsened the problems faced by the Euro countries (BBC News 2012, n.p). The countries that liquidated their local currencies suffered the greatest problems because they could not manage with the failed Euro, and could not borrow loan anywhere else.
The spirit of globalization and the need for economic prosperity made China and other Asian countries like Vietnam, India, and Brazil to open doors for international investors. Many Western Companies left their operation in the country of origin to pursue the advantages promised in the foreign countries (Kunnie 2015, 18). The companies continued relaxed environmental laws in China and the low cost of production. During the exit, many Americans lost jobs and unemployment levels increased. The national revenue of the country also slumped, and China was becoming the global economic giant.
The American Companies that rushed to China and such like countries have suffered some economic tribulations. The patent laws in the particular countries are weak that enforceability is poor. The consequence has been the theft of the American patents by the Chinese businesses. Resultantly, Chinese produce cheap goods using the patents and dumping in the global economy especially to the developing countries of Asia, South America, and Africa (Faure, M., and Van Der Walt 2010, p. 19). American companies are losing markets and becoming desperate because of the uncertain future. The economy of America continues to characterize with foreign debts, most of which come from China.
The multinationals that take advantage of globalization are also failing to meet the necessary standards. Some of the companies are involving in corrupt dealings with officials in the host countries to obtain favors. Some of the companies involve labor malpractices such as the employment of children as ways of cutting production costs and elevating the profit margins (Regan 2016, p. 13). The salaries paid to the workers in the foreign lands are low that they do not resolve poverty problems that globalization ought to reduce. America cannot continue pursuing globalization with the same passion it had at first. It is time to change tact and avoid economic embarrassments that are affecting the nationals.
The system needed to achieve the desire must counter the agenda of globalization. The policy must reserve or save the Americans from the damages that globalization has caused the country. Incidentally, the policy is not far from the wishes and the agendas of the President Donald Trump. The anti-globalization policy proposed here encompasses many things that the American public currently discusses. As mentioned earlier, the policy to meet the desire has everything and Donald Trump and the fanatics esteem. One of the anti-globalization policies is the immigration law that Donald Trump is working hard to enforce. Even though judges in the various courts have attempted to challenge the orders, the President has remained steadfast. According to Gomez and Wolf (2017), Donald Trump declared that he would be deporting all illegal immigrants from countries like Mexico (n.p). He also pledged to establish travel ban on travelers from Islamic countries famous for breeding terrorist groups. The mainly targeted countries include Somalia, Iran, Yemen, Iraq, and Syria among others. The Trump's administration has John Kelly, the Secretary of the Homeland Security as the champion and the designer of the immigration laws. The Texas attorney general Paxton Ken led the about 15 states in America in the supporting the immigration policy proposed by the trump's administration. The Justice Department also sided with President Trump on his controversial travel ban on Muslims from the terror-rich countries.
The economic policy, notably the withdrawal from or review of the trade agreements like the NAFTA, is part of the anti-global policy that would help in achieving the desire. It is true that most of the deals entered by America are the causes of the growing unemployment in the country (Seidel and Chandy 2016, n.p). The Trans-Pacific Partnership has encouraged dumping into the country from states like Canada. The deals are reducing the production activities in America and dying jobs (Chapman 2017, n.p). Another important aspect of the Trump's economic policy that is befitting to the anti-globalization policy is the increase in taxation on the American companies that shift product abroad.
Globalization is the process of integration of world countries, particularly for economic reasons. Countries have embraced globalization to advance their economic and political interests. It is worth nothing that economics and politics hold the power upon which the global activities operate. Countries like America, Britain, China, and Russia are using economic and commercial deals as well as politics to wield their powers on the other countries. In fact, economic and political pursuits define the central pillars of globalization that countries are concentrating attention. It is true that globalization has made countries to achieve significant economic prosperity. Multinational companies have exploited the opportunities and exploded with growth. However, the damages of globalization are just clear now. Globalization has distorted the international politics, security, and economics. America is currently suffering or about to experience some of the harms of globalization. The economy of the country is in ruin, the political and international relations of the country are in jeopardy as many associates are breaking away, and the security of the nation is under the threats of terrorists. The security threat is real because the terror groups are already recruiting and training agents through the Internet to conduct attacks. The perpetrators of the Boston attack had online engagement with foreign terror groups. The only way for America to overcome the problems is by reducing globalization through anti-globalization policy.
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