Social psychology research

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Social psychology is a branch of psychology concerned with how the presence of other people effects our actions, feelings, and thoughts. The following study demonstrates how group processes affect the judgment of the social-self through personality examination (Myers 25). The study is also based on two modules from Myers and Twenge's book "Exploring Social Psychology," namely Narcissism and the Limits of Self-Esteem and Human Nature and Cultural Diversity. The two modules are detailed in full below.

Social psychologists discovered a potentially self-serving bias that we must consider.  The study of this bias reveals the mere truth about human nature that shows how self-esteem has its advantages and disadvantages. Persons with low self-esteem are perceived to experience more challenges in their lives than persons with high self-esteem (Myers 42). The problems break in because of their vulnerability to loneliness, feeding disorders, depression, and anxiety. Most of them remember the past experiences and the bad behaviors of the people surrounding them thus think they are not loved and appreciated.

When we try to appraise their low-esteem by repeatedly telling them that they are appreciated it backfires because their minds are tuned to rely on the negative past experiences. Research conducted made efforts to follow and observe the characteristics of low self-esteemed people from childhood to growing older (Myers 42). They found out that most of the small self-esteem teens develop depression as they mature into adulthood than vice-versa. The co-relation behind these two variables (low self-esteem & Depression), may be influenced by third parties such as sexual abuse, lack of money and a tough childhood.

The study shows us the opposite for people with high self-esteem who will enjoy and bear the good feelings. High-esteem persons believe in having more positive qualities and more talented than their age mates who make them stay positive even in stressful situations and eventual feel right about how they handle the challenges. The confident belief of being stronger, smarter and the perception of being successful socially motivate them to achieve success. The understanding of such people is characterized by initiative, good feelings, and resilience. However, the concept of high self-esteem has been criticized by previous scholars who pointed out that although high-esteem people are associated with success, it does not apply in every aspect (Myers 42). The Asian-Americans are the ones who perform more as learners in academics and are paid highest income as adults who emphasized achievement on self-improvement than in self-esteem.

People who try to put all their effort in pursuing self-esteem are deemed to lose focus on the things that make them happy. She analysed that students who spent their time attempting to impress their mates through the emphasis on their good qualities and not expressing their weakness came to realize that their mates and friends liked them less thus undermining their self-esteem. It is clear that when we rely on boosting self-esteem, we end up facing less criticism hence mount more pressure to achieve our targets than enjoy doing them (Myers 43).

Narcissism is achieved when an individual crosses over from having high self-esteem to overdoing it. It is the actual unjust belief of an own individual mighty. The difference between high-esteem and narcissism is the previous values their success and maintain a relationship with people while a narcissist only cares about how they excel and are self-centred. Bushman explained that in a school set-up, the students who were the most aggressive had high self-esteem and high narcissism. They would retaliate even with their tutors for a lousy grade given and sometimes in an arrogant way. Most of them are usually aware of their narcissism and exaggerate their abilities knowing they make effective first approach which ends up disliked later on. It is believed by many that most narcissists become successful eventually when the rest of the people are still watching. They make excellent leaders, but in the long run, their team always fail due to miscommunication from top to bottom. To sum up, narcissism is associated with failure and is never a formula for success.

Human Nature and Cultural Diversity

The module covers the differences in human behaviours and perceptions and is influenced by ethnic, gender and cultural differences. The module begins with the evolution and the cultural origin of the humans. Though humans may become diverse in different aspects, all people are alike in so many ways from the biological and how they get their basic needs done, i.e., feeding because of hunger, sleeping, waking up, facial expressions and gesture communication, quenching thirst and even talking which is a social aspect. The level of similarity between social human beings is portrayed among different groups globally and the recognition of distinct social status. We respond in the same manner in different exposure to stimuli. An example is everyone would say no if you are given an option of experiencing a painful effect.

The early forms of human beings initially travelled all over the world from Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia and eventually into America in search of food and other human needs. Charles Darwin proposed an evolutionary process that Dennett further illustrated it through the theory of natural selection (Dovidio, et al 145). Natural selection only meant that organisms with abundant genes to survive until they attain reproduction maintained their lineage and those that were weak would not stay long before they were eliminated.

Research conducted about the evolutionary psychology conceals how natural selection is a predisposing factor for social, psychological and physical traits in human beings. From the past period, all people tend to love sweet, nutritious tastes and dislike sour and bitter flavors which were seen as poison. He further explains that we look forward to reproduction which was the only way our forefathers depended on to survive, i.e., give birth, the child survives until mature enough to reproduce and the cycle goes on and on. Evolutionary scientists also observed that we share and answer emotions that our great grandfathers did and thus providing precise guides for performing the elements of social life.

Cultural behavior is achieved via the environmental influence of the evolutionary psychology. Cultural diversity is experienced due to the nature of their surroundings and the needs that the specific people need to be fulfilled. A study shows how people move from one culture to another already knowing that they are to learn the different aspects such as language and what the other cultural group believes.

The human behavior is socially encoded through the diversity of different customs, cultural expressions and languages spoken. Despite our cultural differences, people move from their cultural backgrounds and go to towns and still manage to co-exist in a multicultural environment and still live happily. They embrace and share the excellent characteristics of their primary cultures thus improving their livelihoods. Cultural diversity would have been less relevant if everyone had been living in the same homogeneous ethnic groups in different parts of the world.

Cultural diversity is sometimes startling; an example of how awkward a middle-aged American man would feel if he sees a leader from the Middle East nations kiss an American president on the cheek. The primary cause of cultural diversity is migration and evacuation of refugees. Immigration is on the rise due to some people wanting to explore the world and learn different cultures, education, sports and some seek jobs. It states that cultures differ because of individual choices, ways of expression, rules, and punishments, personal space and punctuality. It is also evident that customs vary not only in their norms but the strengths of these standards as well.

Cultural similarities are also noted along different cultural groups because all human beings belong to one species. Studies conducted in Britain and Japan by Monika Henderson reveals that people all the world share universal norms for friendship (Myers & Twenge, 2017). It is human nature to have a general status norm where people in lower social status don’t talk the same way to people in the high social state and vice versa. The incest taboo is a standard universal norm that is practiced by almost all cultural groups. It cautions out that children are never to engage in sexual relationships with their siblings or their parents. Through the biological explanation of why incest and inbreeding should not be allowed, all cultures condemn abuse, and a massive punishment is taken in case individuals are found to have committed the offense.

Reflective personal essay

A multicultural city is all it takes for me to accomplish my studies in the fashion industry. I have been practicing art and design since I was twelve years old when I realized that I had a talent in the artwork. I am a student who values my education and have an urge to show my pedagogy concern to be a successful artistic designer as well as a guru in the fashion design. I always look forward to achieving my scholarly objectives, this can be regarded as having high-self-esteem, but I prefer referring that to self-determination (Myers & Twenge, pg.42). Through the models of self-improvement, I managed to get a chance to join South Seattle College where I pursued a Fine art degree. These achievements are the typical embracement of the factors that determine evolutionary behaviour.

While in America, I moved to Los Angeles to study fashion design which I gained interest and valued it. It was easier for me to grasp and apply the concepts acquired while in China after an extensive learning and usage of computer drawing applications such as Photoshop, illustrator and the mouse (evolution & behavior). These skills made me self-sufficient in my studies bearing that I was not a beginner of such computer tools. Later on, I still pursued my associate designation degree in fashion design and Merchandising at The Fashion Institute of Designs and Merchandising that is based in Los Angeles. L.A is an awesome city with a multicultural community which gave me an ample time to continue my studies despite everyone coming from their own different cultural and ethnic groups.

I have my unique sense of Chinese fashion that I choose to create my fashion designs, and everyone in America appreciates my designs. However, I also incorporate the American fashion designs that I have keenly learned throughout my study time. These models are just created using the same softwares and applications like the ones in China. This depicts the similarity of the Chinese and American cultures to use similar tools to learn and be able to apply the knowledge anywhere in the world (cultural similarity). Although I am quite excellent at creating and using my self-esteem to achieve more positive results in design work, I still have a desire to continue pursuing fashion design. This eager feeling is the one that has been motivating me to seek out, study more and manage to remember my knowledge and skills as I work my way up making me proud of myself.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Psychological Social support acknowledged, and approaches of coping were evaluated from each of the six questionnaire tests. Factors revealed were related to self-esteem, narcissism, human nature and cultural diversity which were personally predisposition and self-appraisal. Each item was associated with a particular kind of social support. Furthermore, of the four sets of variables, the personality's ways of coping seemed to be most strongly associated with the other types of social support received (Roese 48). Two implications are perceived from the research. First, we suggest that the two modules of psychological social self-studied represent different ideas with diverse experiences and significances. Secondly, we debate that evolutionary behavior offers social indications regarding what is needed in a demanding position and that the members of the social surroundings respond consequently. Scientific suggest that positive self-evaluations, exaggerated perceptions of behavior and self-esteem are distinctive of rational human thought.

Statement Test

1. I feel loved by everyone I meet with.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

2. I feel that there is no one I can share my most private worries and fears with.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

3. If I were sick, I could easily find someone to help me with my daily chores

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

4. There is someone I can turn to for advice about handling problems with my studies.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

5. If I decide one afternoon that I would like to go to a movie that evening, I could easily find someone to go with me.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

6. When I need suggestions on how to deal with a personal problem, I know someone I can turn to.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

7. I don't often get invited to do things with others.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

8. I rarely feel as if I am not good enough for those I care about.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

9. If I wanted to have lunch with someone, I could easily find someone to join me.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

10. I have what it takes to socialize with other people.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

11. If a family crisis arose, it would be difficult to find someone who could give me good advice about how to handle it.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

12. I certainly feel I am useless at times

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

13. I do perceive myself to have high Self-esteem

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

14. Most of the times I speak what is on my mind.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

15. Most of the time I like being the centre of attraction.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

16. I cannot stop designing fashion styles in Chinese.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

17. I think I have low self-esteem because everybody keeps on telling me.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

18. I take a positive attitude towards myself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

19. I feel that I am more worth than other people on the same plane of scale.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

20. All in all I wish I could have more success for myself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

Scoring:

Items, 2, 7, 8, 12, 19, 20 are reverse scored, items 4, 6, 11 are appraisal support sub-scale, 1, 5, 7, 9 make the belonging support sub-scale, items 1, 3, belong to the tangible support sub-scale and items 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 belong to the self-esteem/narcissism support sub-scale.

1st Respondent 20 Statement Test

1. Do you feel Tian is loved by everyone she meets with.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

2. Do you feel that there is no one she can share her most private worries and fears.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

3. If she was sick, she could easily find someone to help him with her daily chores

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

4. There is someone she can turn to for advice about handling problems with her studies.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

5. If she decides one afternoon that she would like to go to a movie that evening, she could easily find someone to go with her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

6. When she needs suggestions on how to deal with a personal problem, she knows someone she can turn to.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

7. She doesn’t often get invited to do things with others.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

8. She rarely feels as if she is not good enough for those she cares about.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

9. If she wanted to have lunch with someone, she could easily find someone to join her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

10. She has what it takes to socialize with other people.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

11. If a family crisis arose, it would be difficult to find someone who could give her good advice about how to handle it.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

12. She certainly feels she is useless at times

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

13. She does perceive to have high Self-esteem

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

14. Most of the times she speaks what is on her mind.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

15. Most of the time she likes being the centre of attraction.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

16. She cannot stop designing fashion styles in Chinese.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

17. I think she has low self-esteem because everybody keeps on telling her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

18. She takes a positive attitude towards herself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

19. She feels that she is more worth than other people on the same plane of scale.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

20. All in all she wishes she could have more success for herself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

After a discursive analysis, the two data samples (individual and 6 others) collected reveals that Tian is a high self-esteem person whom in one way is almost becoming a narcissist because of the lack of care about the other people. They view Tian as a person who achieves her own targets and is always aiming to get more. The analysis shows a similarity in cultures for both the American and the Chinese as she does American ways but still incorporates some of the Chinese design work. She portrays a strong image that has less time for social activities but she knows how to get herself in a social place but prefer not to.

2nd Respondent 20 Statement Test

1. Do you feel Tian is loved by everyone she meets with.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

2. Do you feel that there is no one she can share her most private worries and fears.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

3. If she was sick, she could easily find someone to help him with her daily chores

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

4. There is someone she can turn to for advice about handling problems with her studies.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

5. If she decides one afternoon that she would like to go to a movie that evening, she could easily find someone to go with her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

6. When she needs suggestions on how to deal with a personal problem, she knows someone she can turn to.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

7. She doesn’t often get invited to do things with others.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

8. She rarely feels as if she is not good enough for those she cares about.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

9. If she wanted to have lunch with someone, she could easily find someone to join her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

10. She has what it takes to socialize with other people.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

11. If a family crisis arose, it would be difficult to find someone who could give her good advice about how to handle it.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

12. She certainly feels she is useless at times

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

13. She does perceive to have high Self-esteem

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

14. Most of the times she speaks what is on her mind.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

15. Most of the time she likes being the centre of attraction.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

16. She cannot stop designing fashion styles in Chinese.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

17. I think she has low self-esteem because everybody keeps on telling her.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

18. She takes a positive attitude towards herself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

19. She feels that she is more worth than other people on the same plane of scale.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

20. All in all she wishes she could have more success for herself.

1. Strongly agree. 2. Agree. 3. Disagree. 4. Strongly disagree.

Twenty Statement Tests

Who am I?

I am loving

I am speculative

I am humble

I am an outdoer

I am an achiever

I am team leader

I am mindful

I am social

I am inquisitive

I am down to earth

I am strict

I am open minded

I am creative

I am modest

I am proud of myself

I am special

I am simple

I am good looking

I am precious

I am ambitious

Respondents

You are proud

You are speculative

You are a gold digger

You are a bully

You are selfish

You are choosy

You are a bother

You are mean

You are harsh

You are arrogant

You are a pretender

You are prideful

You are ignorant

You are stubborn

You are good looking

You are smart

You are overambitious

According to the data collected and analysed, it is clear that I am a person of high self-esteem, in the event where some of the items record similar response, it is a clear concept that proof the evolution and the similarity found in human beings. However, some of the information from the shows elements of narcissism especially where I see myself as a leader yet people see me as a bully who is arrogant and cares only about my success. These differences will help me know my personality weaknesses and enlighten me on how to associate with others well. This research clearly shows the appraisal of the ‘self’ and how different factors motivate people to perceive things differently.

Works Cited

Dovidio, John F., et al. The social psychology of prosocial behavior. Psychology Press, 2017.

Myers, David G., and Steven Michael Smith. "Exploring social psychology." (2000).

Roese, Neal J. What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking. Psychology Press, 2014.

April 26, 2023
Category:

Psychology Education

Subcategory:

Behavior Learning

Number of pages

13

Number of words

3569

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