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Sovereignty, derived from the Latin term "Superanus," refers to being superior or paramount. Sovereignty derives from Aristotle, who spoke of superior forces of the empire. In the Middle Ages, jurists from Rome and other citizens had this notion in mind, and they often used the words “Summa” and “Plenitude protestations” to denote the strength of a certain government.
There are two kinds of sovereignty: internal sovereignty and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is used to refer to some persons, assembly of a group of people in each and every independent state which have a final legal authority to enforce and command compliance. This form of independence exercise happens to exercise its absolute authority over the associations or individuals within a particular state.

External sovereignty, on the other hand, is seen when the state happens to be subjected to no other power and is autonomous of any form of impulse on the part of those different states. The self-governing states happen to reserve the power to renounce the trade contracts and also to venture into any form of military contracts. External sovereignty makes each state independent of others. This helps any state to determine its foreign policy and also join any block of power that it feels like as substantiated by Krasner, (1999).

Question six

According to Caramani, (2011), civilization can be defined as an intricate society that is based on societal stratification, urban growth, figurative communication forms and a perceived severance from the natural setting by those who are referred to as the cultural elite. The civilization of any state is defined by the socio-political-economic characteristics which are inclusive of domestication of both the human beings and other animals, centralization, specialization of labour, the ideologies of progress and supremacism that are culturally ingrained, taxation, monumental architecture, expansionism and societal dependence.

According to Porter, (1999), civilization has been promoted by various communities consolidating together and making larger groups which require certain rules and regulations so as they can live together. It is as a result of civilization that there is formation of governments, laws and other ideologies which ensure that people there are the formation of societies which have a high level of technological and cultural development. Sometimes civilization may be used to describe the metropolitan state level societies while disregarding the nomadic persons who happen to lack lasting settlement and the people living in the settlements which cannot be considered metropolitan, or even they do not have any state level organization. Sometimes the human societies who have attained a critical degree of intricacy can use this label.

Question seven

Consolidation of a rule

Consolidation of a rule is through which various actions are brought on a similar policy. Consolidation of rules mainly took place between the 12 and the 17th century where the number of political differences saw decreasing and each of these powers were to extend their control to other portions of Europe. When the consolidation of rule takes place each of the state involved is forced to extend or broaden its territories reach, monopolizing its legitimate violence and it imposes this to other centres.

According to Valenzuela, (1982), there are various times those consolidations of rules leads to a peaceful state. This is when some of the dynastic that are ruling over various parts marry and the territorial holding of a certain spouse happen to be welded to those of the other territories. Consolidation also happens to result in various conflicts between the centers involved where most of those conflicts are settled by war, and the winner conquers and forcibly annexes all parts of the territory of the loser. This is the reason as to why consolidation of the rule is mainly played with the use of military resources, but in turn, there is the need to have the financial capacity so as to muster those particular resources. This is when troops are deployed against the opponents so that they can be made to prevail in the clash of those arms that are those resources which are wielded by the opponent.

Question eight

Nations happen to be socially constructed. This is because all the nations happen to be emphasizing their dependence on the contingent aspects of their social selves. There are various things that make up a nation which includes race and ethnicity which is all social constructs. The race happens to be something that has formulated so many nations, and they are the social construction which is used to categorize people with the use of their biologically transmitted traits deemed to be socially significant. Ethnicity is another form of social construction which has enhanced the formulation of a state. It happens to be socially constructed by the historical representation of various groups of people. Ethnicity happens to provide to individuals with a sense of not only the inclusion into a particular group but also the exclusion from another group. Exclusion or inclusion can only be determined by social interactions via the use of symbols. Now, since race and ethnicity happen to be socially constructed and they are the one determining the construction of a particular state, it is correct to say that states are socially constructed. They are all divided into certain ethnicity boundaries where the difference in colour, culture and other traits can be observed from one state to another as substantiated by O'Neill, (2015).

List of references

Krasner, S.D., 1999. Sovereignty: organized hypocrisy. Princeton University Press.

Porter, D., 1999. Health, civilization and the state. A history of public health from ancient to modern times. Londres y Nueva York: Routledge, 47.

Valenzuela, A., 1982. The military in power: The consolidation of one-man rule. The struggle for democracy in Chile, 1990, pp.21-72.

O'Neill, D.W., 2015. The proximity of nations to a socially sustainable steady-state economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, pp.1213-1231.

Caramani, D., 2011. Comparative politics. Oxford University Press.

August 18, 2021

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