Texas Government Research

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The Texas constitution, which was adopted in 1876, governs the state of Texas. The state government and the county government are the two kinds of government in Texas. The executive, legislature, and judiciary are the three branches of Texas state government. Commissions, courts, and towns are all part of the county government. The Texas executive branch is the highest level of the state legislature. The governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Comptroller of Public Accounts and the land commissioner, and the three-member commission make up this body (Texas Railroad, the secretary of state, and the state board of education). Because there are so many elected officials in the executive branch, the governor's powers are limited compared to governors in most states (Tannahill, 2013). The governor, on the other hand, appoints the legislators " and can also determine the members of the judiciary between the elections. All the members of the executive except the state secretary are elected, and each has a term of four years in office (Tannahill, 2013).

The judiciary of Texas consists of nine members of the state supreme court and nine members of the court criminal appeals who are to serve the Texas state for a maximum of six years. The Texas Supreme Court hears civil cases. All the members of the Texas state court are elected by the citizens of the state. Texas eighty courts of appeal, four hundred and forty three state district courts. It also has four hundred and ninety four county judges, eight hundred and twenty one justices of the peace and one thousand four hundred and twelve municipal courts. The state also has seventeen alternative dispute resolution centers. The main task of the judiciary is to ensure law and order in the state (Tannahill, 2013).

The legislative arm of Texas government is bicameral, and it consists of the Texas house of representative, and the Texas Senate. The Texas house of representatives has one hundred and fifty members, and it is presided over by the speaker of the house. The Texas Senate, on the other hand, consists of thirty one members and is presided over by The Lieutenant governor. The legislator is a very powerful arm of the Texas government. It works in conjunction with the governor and the lieutenant governor to control and direct all activities of the state. The governor has the power to convene the legislator under some circumstances called the special session. Other called sessions are limited to thirty days. The regular session often convenes on the second Tuesday of January in the odd number years. In the sessions, the legislator is allowed to pass a law. The session laws are later published in the official general and special laws. Article III of the Texas constitution deals with the legislative arm of the government of Texas.

Counties are the functional agents of the state and these counties also play a very vital role in the economic development of local areas. Texas has two hundred and fifty four counties which have a well-established local government (Tannahill, 2013). Each county is headed by a five member commissioner court. The commissions consist of four commissioners elected from a district and the county judge who has been elected by the county at large. However, the county judge does not have the power of vetting other commissions but has the duty of certifying court elections and serving on the commissioners. The counties also have other officials such as the sheriff and the tax collectors. The county government has many roles that include building and maintaining roads, constructing county airports, maintaining public records, collecting taxes and renovation of recreational facilities. The county government also assists the federal government in the registration of voters, issuing of vehicle registration numbers, and propulsion of economic development in the local area (The New Yorker, 2017). The counties in Texas unlike in the other states does have the zoning of power. However, they can collect a small portion of taxes and spend it on the local people. This includes the maintenance of hospitals and other social amenities (Tannahill, 2013).

Another unit of local government is the special districts. The schools and many other special districts are collectively known as single purpose govern because they often perform one function. The schools and other learning institutions provide education only. Hospitals, on the other hand, have one major role in providing health care. Water treatment firms supply water only. There are many other special districts, most of them serve a limited geographical area and are mainly created because the local government may be unable to provide a particular service to the local community. Texas also has a political subdivision of the state which are called Council of Governments (COGs). The council of governments, unlike the cities and counties, cannot levy taxes on the locals. They operate according to specific state status as prescribed by the laws. Texas cities are operated under the general laws which apply to particular things. The council of governments are incorporated into municipalities. The municipalities have a general role in tax collection, dump management, sewage treatment, planning of the council of governments and constructing of operating jails in the state. (The New Yorker, 2017).

All forms of smaller local governments include the special district and the municipal league merge to form a county government. They work together in harmony with the directives from the county planning department to achieve the county goals. The counties work together with each other to ensure the success of Texas State as a whole (Tannahill, 2013). Texas State remains one of the most successful states in the United States of America. It works closely with the federal government. The laws in the Texas constitution goes hand in hand with the constitution of the United States which was adopted in 1878 two years after the Texas constitution was adopted. It also favors the fulfillment of the 14th amendment as stated in the constitution. The Texas state government also ensures that it informs the Federal government of any action that might affect other states so as to maintain peace, law, and order throughout the country.

Works Cited

Tannahill, Neal R. Texas Government: Policy and Politics. Boston: Pearson, 2013. Print.

The New Yorker 2017. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/07/10/americas-future-is-texas. Accessed on 5th December 5, 2017.

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July 29, 2022
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