The Challenges of Globalization

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Over the recent past, the word globalization has become a common term. International communities have referred to the world as a global village. Globalization has different meaning depending on the various subject of interest. In history, the best definition of globalization can be referred to as the integration is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and government on a global scale. As globalization came to exist, there are various challenges that have affected the process. However, the benefits of globalization outweigh the negative impacts of globalization. Benefits of globalization have not been able to spread to all countries automatically (Mckay et al. 28). Less developed countries have been left aside when developed countries and good business companies are looking for companies to invest in. This paper aims to bring out the challenges of globalization and how the challenges have inhibited connection among countries.

Globalization has resulted in the world being grouped into three categories, that is, developed countries, developing countries, and less developed countries (Mckay et al. 565). The countries are categorized depending on the business climate that exists in such countries. Developed countries have the best business environment that mainly entails good infrastructure and good laws and policies that allow for foreign investors. On the other hand, less developed countries have the worst environment for conducting business, and thus many investors will tend to avoid such countries. Globalization has made major steps in helping the world come together; however, less developed countries are always over-looked when it comes to having a favorable environment for starting a business. Most of the less developed countries only major in agriculture production and raw material. Most of the less developed countries are in Africa and Asia.

Globalization has helped the countries especially when there is civil conflict and when the country has a conflict with the neighboring countries. Solving the conflict peacefully has been one of the major achievements of globalization to those countries. Globalization is not entirely about businesses and investments inclusively. The aspect of other governments and international communities coming together to help another solve their conflict peacefully is also critical for globalization especially on the political aspect of globalization. When Kenya had a civil war termed ‘Post-General Election Violence’ the international community had to come in and save the country from itself. Koffi Annan helped with the mediation talks, and the two leaders concluded without putting the country at harm’s way (Lafargue 37).

The main benefit of globalization that has been reported by various researchers is the business prospects of the countries that are involved. When new companies especially Multinational Corporation (MNCs) invests in developing countries, there are various benefits that the new countries are going to derive from the company (Relly 67). The company can provide new ideas to the country where they have started the business and also improve the gross domestic product (GDP). Many people are likely to get employed when the MNCs have set up their company and have started employing workers. Workers who have been employed by the new company are also likely to benefit their families. There is also likely to be the development of the infrastructure so as to ensure that the products can get to the market and also people can get to the product sites. Globalization has greatly helped countries to develop especially in cases where civil wars are not likely to occur.

The main challenge that globalization faces, is the different policies that exist in some countries. Some countries make it quite difficult for foreigners to invest. The policies and the bureaucracy usually scare away potential investors. The amount of tax has also been considered as one of the main reasons why foreigners do not invest in Africa. There are three main factors in the policy-making that influences the ability of a different country to invest in the foreign markets. The three aspects are macroeconomic stability, openness in how the government makes policies that affect foreign exchange and trade regimes, and the ability of the government to create a conducive environment for foreign and domestic investment.

Macroeconomic stability affects the value of the currency in the international market. For a country to be seen as viable for investment, the country ought to have low inflation and appropriate real exchange rates. As the country is making new policies, the leaders ought to take into consideration the effect of inflation rate in the country’s economy. Countries that have high inflation rates easily have a currency that is of low value in the international market. In some cases, MNCs have had to use other currencies like the US Dollar so as to harmonize the prices and ensure that the country is still making profits. However, using foreign currency to conduct business in another country is not advisable since there is likely chance of imbalance trade.

Citizen ought to participate in the decision making of a country. In most of the less developed countries, the public lacks interest in public issues due to the high level of corruption. Elected leaders have thus ended up coming up with more policies that only have their interest and not of investors or the public. Countries should have clear means of coming up with the policies and the public ought to be consulted. It will ensure that the country has policies that are likely to encourage investment.

It is the role of the government to ensure that the citizens are employed. The government can improve the employment rates by coming up with policies that are conducive for both domestic and foreign investment. When many companies and factories have been set up, the country is likely to have a surplus to export leading to a balance of trade.

Poor infrastructure and civil wars also have limited globalization in many less developed countries. Infrastructure is critical in the transportation of the raw materials and the products to the market. When a country has poor infrastructure, they are unlikely to have investors due to lack of transportation. Civil wars have also scared away some potential investors. However, despite the challenges discussed above, there are various ways through which underdeveloped countries can come with better ways to enhance globalization in their countries.

The governments can improve globalization into their countries by maintaining macroeconomic stability. The state of foreign exchange in a country ought to be very flexible and allow for foreign investment. Improving avenues for foreign investment and not the foreign exchange is important. The government can easily improve economic stability by ensuring that there are good public services including transportation networks, water, communication, and electricity (Globalization). It is critically for buyers to find better ways to communicate with the producers. 

Economic security is the state at which a country has a stable low inflation rate. Less developed countries have been trying to establish the right framework for economic activities (Globalization). The right and new framework have been put in place to ensure that the money that has been put aside for construction of public amenities is used in the right manner. The framework also tries to ensure that the country comes up with the social amenities that are required for a stable economic state. Most of the less developed countries have ensured that they have good transportation channel and telecommunication put in place to encourage foreign and domestic investment.

Many less developed countries have endorsed democracy. Some of the countries have not been fully able to be democratic. The drive towards democracy of many nations in the world is mainly due to globalization. The international community has intervened in most cases to help countries that are not democratic to gain democracy. Most of the countries have endorsed transparency and accountability to most of the leaders that are appointed by the government. The leaders are held accountable for any of the money spent within their ministry. Globalization is driving many of the less developed countries towards democracy, and this will ensure that good leaders are elected into office (Outtara n.p). Good leaders usually have the interest of the people at heart and can easily modify the old frameworks and come up with new ones that can serve the intended purpose.

Many countries have also endorsed the participation of the civil societies and the public in policymaking (Outtara n.p). Some of the civil societies, unlike the public, are obliged to take part in the decision making procedure. The civil societies sometimes also consult with the public to find out if their interests are represented and the best policies that will ensure both foreign and domestic investments are put in place.

Despite the improvements that have been made in regards to globalization, some adjustments can be made to ensure that all the countries have a chance at benefiting from globalization. The most crucial factor that can be addressed by the United Nations is the possibility of an open and liberal system of capital movements (Globalization). The World Bank ought to come up with the main rules that govern the money floor especially in dealing with foreign investments. World Bank can look into the disparity in the ways the loans can be awarded in certain countries and financial laws that inhibits investment of foreign countries. Many trading blocs have managed to come up with policies that promote trade with its members. It is possible for the blocs to come up with policies and laws that promote investment in the member states and just not trades.

In conclusion, globalization refers to as the integration is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and government on a global scale. There are various challenges that have inhibited globalization in some countries. Globalization resulted in countries being categorized in three groups that are the developed countries, developing countries, and less developed countries. Most less developed countries have failed to benefit from globalization especially in the economic aspect. However, due to globalization, several conflicts have been resolved in a peaceful manner, for example, Post-Election Violence in Kenya. There are various changes that the less developed countries have made to ensure they also benefit from globalization. Countries have modified their microeconomic policies and framework to ensure that the country attains economic security. The countries with the help of the international community have tried to bring democracy and good leadership in a country where they never existed. There is a lot that countries can still do to ensure that all the countries can benefit from globalization. The World Bank should come up with policies to harmonies and do away with the various disparities in economic policies in some countries. Countries have been able to work in trade bloc. The same blocs can modify their policies and regulation and eventually advocate for investment in countries that are in the same blocs.

Question two: What is the most significant development in world history since 1500?

Over the past that is from 1500 there are several changes that have occurred in the history of the human being. As much as the changes have been critical in bringing development in how humans interact and perform certain duties, I believe that the scientific revolution is the most significant in the history of human being since 1500. Before the development of the various objects and discoveries, scientific revolution provided a background from which most inventions and development stemmed from. A scientific revolution is sometimes referred to as the resurrection of modern science. Three aspects of scientific Revolution makes it a significant development in history from 1500. The three broad of categories of things that were discovered in this period included scientific methods, new ideas, and new mechanical devices. Some of the ideas that were discovered during this time are still being used as they identified.

There have been several discussion on how long the scientific revolution lasted and the certain development that was made during the practice. Since the periods by different scholars differ, the invention that was made during this period also differs. The only invention that exists in all the scholars that have written about scientific revolution is the scientific method of study. The scientific method of study is very important in explaining how certain inventions were made. The common scientific method that came up during this period includes Empiricism, Baconian science, scientific experimentation, mathematization, the Mechanical philosophy, and institutionalization. The two most common methods associated with this period are Empiricism and Baconian science. Some historian believes that the scientific revolution came to an end when Newton made his discoveries about the law of gravity and published the facts. Without the advancement in the study methods, Newton could have failed to make most of the discoveries that he made during the period.

Empiricism was one of the large inventions in this period. The study came up with new means through which scientist could study nature and explain facts they thought were initially blurred and could not be explained (Relly 298). This new method of study mainly focused on explaining nature and facts by conduction tests that could be proven. Empiricism was mainly used in the test for important science and natural philosophy before it was officially named and became common during the scientific revolution. John Locke made a great impact on the development of empiricism in the paper that the published in 1689. Francis Bacon was known as the empiricist since he believed that things beyond an understanding of men could still be studied as long as there was enough proof for testing. Rene Descartes, on the other hand, was known as the rationalist, since he believed that only things humans could understand could be studied and understood.

Bacon took it upon himself to come up with measures to explain the scientific method to many people who were against it. He also wanted many scientists to understand the method so that they can use it. He described the method as

There remains simple experience; which, if taken as it comes, is called accident, if sought for, experiment. The true method of experience first lights the candle [hypothesis], and then by means of the candle shows the way [arranges and delimits the experiment]; commencing as it does with experience duly ordered and digested, not bungling or erratic, and from it deducing axioms [theories], and from established axioms again new experiments. (Bacon in Hendricks 68)

The scientific method from the scientific revolution is very significant to most of the studies that have been conducted and made available for human consumption. Boyle used the method and gave an understanding of how gases act when they condense and when in different states (Spielvogel 103). Humans cannot see most of the colorless gases, but they have different properties, and the best way that the gases could have been studied is only through the scientific method. If Bacon could have failed to defend the method and no proper method put in place, it is possible that people could still not know various gases today. Understanding the properties of different gases have aided in identifying gases that could be used for various purposes and how they can be collected. It also helps humans to detect harmful gases and make up the best ways to deal with the gases. Very lethal gases like Sarin are not allowed to be used in any country.

Various scientist and researchers in the field of chemistry have modified the scientific method and used it to conduct researches that are very important in human lives. Most of the medicines that are being produced in the market today use the scientific method to test for their effectiveness and their lethal dose to save humans from diseases as well as ensuring that they take only the right amount allowed.

During the period of scientific revolution, various devices were discovered. The devices have been improved to make them work more effectively. The discovery of the first telescope was a major achievement. There are various researchers also contributed to the scientific method becoming accepted by various people and another scientist. Johannes Kepler and Galileo were the first to give the theory credibility when they decided to study the stars using the same method. Kepler studied the stars and came up with the theory of planets. Galileo then got very curious about the space and eventually developed the first telescope to study the space. Initially, before the two researchers came together to study the space using the scientific method, people did not have a clear understanding of the space and existence of other planets. Most of the explanation on the existence of the planet was based on religious and cultural beliefs.

Isaac Newton also supported the theory that was produced by Kepler and Galileo on the existence on the planet by his study on gravitation (Hall 17). It is during the period of scientific revolution that Newton came up with his notion about laws of motions and universal gravitation. He conducted various researchers to come up with the laws of motions that are widely known and accepted worldwide. Most of the invention in the field of physics was done by Kepler. He came up with the aspect of the optic lenses and how they could be used in studying the space.

In biology and medicine, the scientific method was used greatly explain human and animal anatomy as soon as it was developed. Andreas Vesalius greatly improved human anatomy art of Galen. Understanding human anatomy has provided improved medicines and process of treating those who are sick. Vesalius was able to greatly improve the chart on human anatomy since he was dissecting human corpses for the study purposes and not animals as Glen did. Margaret Cavendish featured among men and greatly contributed to inventions and providing credibility to the scientific method.

Dr. William Gilbert also coined various definitions about electricity and various elements that could conduct elasticity and produce electricity also majored on the scientific project. Gilbert did various tests to help in making his discovery. Due to the numerous tests, he was able to discover that sulfur, wax, and glass were capable of manifesting electricity. There are various innovations that have been made in the field of electricity and properties of materials when they are in contact with electrical charges that have stemmed from the scientific approach. 

Some of the other machines that were discovered during the scientific revolution include calculation devices. John Naper invented the first calculation device and introduced logarithms. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculators. There are also various industrials machines that were discovered during this period as a result of the scientific method. Some of the devices invented for industrial purposes including steam digester, the Newcomen steam engine. Vacuum pumps were essential for the tests that Boyle carried out on the properties of gases. Due to the improved boundary for researchers, scientific method gave room for scientists to test how they can make use of certain materials.

In conclusion, there have been various progresses that humans have made since 1500. As much as these developments are significant, the development of the scientific method during the scientific revolution was very significant. Bacon came up with the new procedure for carrying out scientific studies. The method provided a field for a scientist to carry out researches on things that were considered blurred by other scientists and philosophers. The scientific method is the most significant development since it gave rise to the modern size. There are various researches who conducted their studies based on the method and proved its credibility. Kepler and Galileo were the first scientists to prove that the method was credible for conducting research. In the field of medicine and health, the method provided further study on human anatomy. Understanding human anatomy is very important when it comes to deciding on the best procedures that an individual will get in the hospital. The scientific method has been modified to assist in carrying various researches currently. The scientific method gave rise to the development of the first telescope and clear understanding of the solar system. Newton also used the same method when he was proving his theory on the laws of motions.

Work Cited

"Globalization Benefits And Challenges | Principles Of Marketing". Courses.Lumenlearning.Com, 2018, Accessed 8 Dec 2018.

Hendricks David W., Water Treatment Unit Processes: Physical and Chemical. 2018. Print.

Lafargue, Jerome. The General Elections in Kenya, 2007. , 2009. Internet resource.

McKay John, Hill Bennett, et al., Understanding World Societies Since 1450, Vol. 2. Boston: Bedford, 2015.

Ouattara, Alassane. "The Challenges Of Globalization For Africa --Alassane D. Ouattara". IMF, 1997, Accessed 8 Dec 2018.

Reilly, Kevin., Worlds of History: A Comparative History, Volume 2 since, 6th

Edition. Boston: Bedford, 2017.

Spielvogel, Jackson J. "Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment." Glencoe World History. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2003. 508-40. Print.

November 13, 2023


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