The Pathophysiology of High Blood Pressure

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Hypertension is a medical term blood pressure higher than 140/90mmHg over some weeks, and it is a dangerous condition that can damage the heart. Pathophysiology of hypertension is a field which tries to elaborate the physical and biological causes of high blood pressure which is a chronic disease. The uncertainty of pathophysiology of hypertension exist, and a small number of patients have implicit renal and adrenal illness as a result of their elevated blood pressure. The essay seeks to expound on the body systems involved in hypertension, normal anatomy and physiology of the body systems affected, mechanism of pathophysiology, prevention and treatment for the condition.

Body Systems Involved

            According to Haider, Ahmad and Ali (2018), hypertension targets the circulatory, excretion and the nervous systems in the body whereby the uncontrolled blood pressure level of 180mmHg accelerates damage of the heart, kidney, and brain leading to organs failure and eventually death. The circulatory system is responsible for pumping blood in the whole body and due to the strain caused by damage of hypertension, the coronary arteries that supply oxygen to the heart narrows due to the buildup of fats and cholesterol and the oxygen supply slow down leading to a heart attack. The excretory system through the kidneys remove nitrogenous waste, excess salts and water from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine. The Kidneys have a dense network of blood vessels, and extreme blood pressure narrows them leading to kidney failure due to low supply of oxygen. The nervous system is adversely affected by high blood pressure where the arteries supplying blood to the brain become narrow and blood clotting can quickly happen when the blood forces itself in the narrow vessels.

Normal Anatomy of Major Body Systems Affected

            The anatomy of the cardiovascular system consists of the pumping mechanism (heart), mode of transport (blood vessels), and the transport medium (blood). The system is responsible for transporting substances including oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to cells and tissues in the body and elimination of metabolic waste products including the nitrogenous wastes and Carbon (IV) Oxide. The kidneys are the major organs responsible for the separation and excretion of metabolic wastes through the ultrafiltration process. The nervous system is responsible for response, reception, and coordination and consists of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Normal Physiology of Body systems Involved

            The circulatory system is responsible for pumping the blood all over the body. It carries nutrients and blood as well as metabolic wastes to and from the body cells. The blood is channeled through arteries, veins, and capillaries. The veins collect deoxygenated blood apart from the pulmonary vein to the heart whereas the arteries channel blood rich in oxygen except for pulmonary artery to all parts of the body. The capillaries which form a dense network of vessels takes the substances suspended in blood to the body tissues. Hypertension makes the vessels carrying blood to narrow and weaken thus fail to transport the blood to the heart for pumping as well as failing to transport the blood to the brain causing a stroke. The excretory system purifies the blood and remove all the metabolic wastes and excrete it in the form of urine. The urine passes from the kidneys through tubes called ureter to the bladder where it is stored before finally moving out of the body through the urethra.

Mechanism of Pathophysiology

            The pathophysiology of hypertension seeks to elaborate the causes of this dangerous disease including genetic factors which are present in particular families, over-consumption of alcohol, taking more salts in the diet, stress, old age, smoking and lack of physical exercise. The blood flow forces itself against the walls of the blood vessels and causes fatigue  (Miller & Woodward 2014). Accumulation of fats and cholesterol blocks the blood ways and making it strenuous for blood to flood.

Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

            High blood pressure is a preventable disease which will require a minimal intake of sodium in the diet, but a high intake of potassium and green leafy vegetables is advisable (Cheng & Pan 2017). People should avoid smoking and over-consumption of alcohol. Physical activities are crucial and avoiding stress will help prevent this silent killer disease. Mariapillai, Eskas, and Heimark (2017) stipulated that hypertension can be treated through lifestyle changes or medication depending on severity. The medication will relax the muscles, and this enables smooth flow of blood. The aged can be given the calcium channel blockers which are drugs that reduce the blood pressure by slowing the calcium into the blood vessels that open and widen the vessels to allow efficient blood flow.

Clinical Relevance

            Clinical trials have shown the importance of adopting ways that would reduce the risk of hypertension. The focus of the test seeks to impact on people the prevalence and the dangers associated with this disease. Treatments have shown a positive impact on patients, and they have been encouraged to modify their lifestyles (Hatter-Fisher, Harper & Schaffer 2015).


            Any disease affects the way a particular body system function. Hypertension is a disease which is chronic, and it affects critical body systems. Failing of body systems leads to disabilities and eventually death. However, the condition is manageable especially when detected and addressed early. People should handle their lifestyles with caution to prevent such a disease.


Cheng, M. and Pan, T. (2017). ” Prevention of hypertension-induced vascular dementia by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products”. Pharmaceutical Biology. 55(1), 487–496.

Haider R.U, Ahmad M.R, Ali S.S, Tariq M. (2018). “Relation between Modifiable Risk Factors and Hypertension: A Case-Control Study." Isra Med J. 10(3), 181-184.

Hatter-Fisher D, Harper, W, and Schaffner, B. (2015). “Promoting Hypertension Risk Reduction: Outcomes of an Academic-Urban Community Project Collaboration." The Negro Educational Review. 66(1), 1-4.

Mariapillai, J., Eskas, P., Heimark, S., et al. (2017). “Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension – patient-physician relationship and ethical issues." Blood Pressure, 26(3), 133–138.

Miller, D., Woodward, N. (2014). “Whom should you test for secondary causes of hypertension?”. The Journal of Family Practice. 63(1).

October 05, 2023



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