The US Japanese confinement resources literature review

271 views 4 pages ~ 1059 words
Get a Custom Essay Writer Just For You!

Experts in this subject field are ready to write an original essay following your instructions to the dot!

Hire a Writer

The Most Heinous Atrocity During World War II

The most heinous atrocity was the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II, which began in 1942. The internment began when the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, instilling fear among Americans. As a result, they viewed Japanese aliens as adversaries, prompting them to enter the Second World War. The Japanese Americans on the US coast were supposed to have assisted the Japanese armed troops in their invasion of the US (Cohen 198) lead to isolation of Japanese American in guarded camps an act that was viewed as an episode of national embarrassment to a state like America. This act triggered international concern, interventions and anti racial plan as the detainees suffered from being deprived their constitutional right of speedy trials and habeas corpus. Because of pressure on the constitutional right of the detainees the Americans lifted, the executive order 9066 on January 2 1945which allowed Japanese Americans to move freely and compensated survivors with $20.000 for their losses. As a result of analysis on correct sources and events of the of Japanese intendment in the 2 world war different ideas were argued out.

Literature Review of the Sources

Different scholars held different views about Japanese confinement during the war. By the help of secondary sources, different scholars using their own philosophy about the study justified whether the event were worth happening or not.

Cohen's Argument on Racism

Cohen argued that the internment was driven by racism and not national security (Cohen 208). This was evident from the different laws imposed before the 2 world war on immigrates flooding in the pacific coast where white racial prejudice dominated. These laws included the miscegenation law that restricted marriage between the Caucasians and Mongolians. Another is the San Francisco law that ensured Japanese and Chinese attended segregated school hence not mingle with Americans as well as the exclusion law passed in 1924. This law deprived them the right to own American citizenship up to 1941.for this reasons, Cohen declared that the internment was racial driven.

Kinoshita's Perspective on Constitutional Rights

According to (Kinoshita) the executive order 9066 deprived the Japanese American (71.000) their constitution right to freedom. This was a constitutional breech as the internment was to target those with Japanese ancestry and did not put any consideration to the Japanese Americans who had the right of American citizens as per the law. Their disorganization, short timing and evacuation notice which demanded them to be in collection centers for transportation to detention centers was in human. They loosed their properties as they were allowed to carry clothes and bags only. The camps were in poor condition as they were in remote areas, which belonged to Indians reservation and had an unbearable weather. They had poor bedding that made it difficult for their survival.

Bush's View on Emotional and Physical Distress

Bush argued that the main problem the detainees suffered from was emotional and physical distress. According to this source, the armed guards killed those who attempted to leave the camp. The medical services were poor as the medics harshly treated the detainees. According to bush, the emotional distress could not be compensated.

Reeves' Argument for National Security

On the contrary suggested that it was for the detainees benefit as well as security that they were detained. (Reeves 51)The condition of security in us pacific coast was deteriorating as Japanese attract Pearl Harbor leaving the cost prone to attacks. This was far much enhanced by presence of the American Japanese at the coast who were thought could enabled Japan to launch another attack before 1941. After Japanese submarine was cited on the coast of Goleta, fear and panic was experienced and the US president ordered FBI and military to round up Japanese detainees.

Girtin's Perspective on Sacrifice and Precedence

According to Girtin, the act was a sacrifice for the war attempt. He also argued that the sacrifice made by the Japanese American was not as severe as that made by the Americans and their soldiers. Many American soldiers died during war while the Americans had to stomach rationing of basic substances such as food and gasoline. (Gitlin 22-27) The source also suggests that the act was of historic precedence. This was seen when President Roosevelt ignored the order by the law against detention without trial.

Increased Freedom for Detainees

Suggested that the detention led to more freedom to the detainees after exclusion order was lifted in 1945. (Wendy 19) It is after this that the American Japanese were allowed to move freely in and out of the camp, settle anywhere in the us as well as work gets educated and own property at any part of the US. They enjoyed this great freedom as opposed to what they enjoyed before internment.


In conclusion, the internment of the Japanese in the US provoked different reactions by scholars. Some viewed it as unworthy and against humanity, while others viewed it as of great importance towards national security. The whole act would be more efficient if the two parties were taken into consideration. Nevertheless, it would be of great importance that necessary sacrifices would be made towards national security. Despite the pain induced by the containment, it was worth happening as the positives outweigh the negatives.

Works Cited

Bush, Elizabeth. uprooted:the jap[anese Americans experince during world war2 by albert marrin bulletin of the center for childrens book no 70(2)2016,pp. 83, accesed. oct.2016.

Cohen, Lauren,Gurun,Umit G,& Malloy,Christopher. "resident work and corporate connections:Evidence from world war 2 internment camps."The journal of finance,no.72(1),2017,pp.207-248,http:. http.//online, 12 jan.2017.

Gitlin, Martin. world war 2 us homefront:a history perspective book.Cherry lake publishing,2014.gentery melissa.the japanese American internment camps map.cardinalscholar.bsu.edu2016., 11may 2016.

Jones, Khyri. the hypocresy of japanese interment.oral presentatiom. scholar,2016, presentation-1/10/., 13th march 2016.

Kinoshita, lisa.M. the japanese internment during world war 2 and second generation Nisei:an examination of their past and present coping and adjustment.dissertation,pacific graguate school of psycholigy,2002,pp.1583-1583. n.d.

Reeves, Richard. the schooking story of the Japanese A mericans internment in world war 2. Henry Hold and company, 2015.

Wendy, Ng. japanese Americans internment during world war 2 a history and refference guide. greenwood publishing group, 2002.

May 10, 2023
Subject area:

Pearl Harbor Japanese Army

Number of pages


Number of words




Writer #



Expertise Army
Verified writer

GeraldKing is an amazing writer who will help you with History tasks. He is the friendliest person who will provide you with explanations because he really wants you to learn. Recommended for your history or anthropology assignments!

Hire Writer

This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Eliminate the stress of Research and Writing!

Hire one of our experts to create a completely original paper even in 3 hours!

Hire a Pro