Traps and the Countries Caught in Them

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In addition to the "development trap" and the "health trap," "Traps and the Countries Caught in Them" specifies four "traps." What do the author think these traps are? Define each "trap" in detail.

Answer: The author identifies four major development traps. It consists of the conflict trap, the natural resource trap, poor governance, and bad neighbors. These traps are the causes that are contributing to the economic stagnation of the bottom billion countries.

Conflict traps are two types of political conflicts that are repeated and harmful to the bottom billion countries. Conflict traps include the political conflicts of the countries which are stuck into the internal pattern of a country’s politics. The natural resources trap refers to the state of irregularity. It includes the countries which are rich in natural resources but failed to use them wisely for the growth and development of the country.

2. Has the gap between the bottom billion and the rest of the developing world always been there, or has it come about because the bottom billion has been trapped?

Answer: According to the author the gap between the bottom billion and rest of the developing nations not been there but appears when the bottom billion has been trapped. All these above mentioned traps affected negatively to the bottom billion. After the wars, changing’s in world’s environment, different circumstances, innovation and new territories defined the bottom billion countries and their territories. These countries and its traps affected its development and growth and made it the bottom billion. These traps are the worst part of these bottom billion approach and countries.

3. What is the definition of a “civil war”? What is the link between a civil war and the bottom billion? What makes a country prone to a civil war?

Answer: Civil War refers to a war which is fought by same citizens of the same country. If the civil war would not be stopped within the country, then there is a chance of the occurrence of another civil war.

According to the author, 73 percent of the bottom billion countries and nations are fighting the civil war. This war decreases the growth and development of a country. Three major traits related to the country’s economy make a country prone to a civil war. It includes low income, slow growth, and dependency on the good primary exports of the country.

4. Why do civil wars last so long? What are the costs of War for these countries?

Answer: The civil war is the war between the citizens of one country. It includes the conflicts between the citizens which are long lasting and remain unsolved for many years. Different countries had faced many different scenarios of civil war. Some countries had political issues which last for a long time.

Many countries citizens have cultural, ethnic and race issues which also last longer and still present in many countries like the United States of America. These countries and their civil wars affect the economic growth and development of the countries. These countries have to pay for their civil wars in different manners like loss of capital, growth, and development of the economy.

5. What does the author say is the curse of natural resources?

Answer: According to the author, some countries are rich in the natural resource. But these countries are not able or fail to use their natural resources well for the economy. All nations with rich and valuable resources are not always the ones who develop and grow. This concept is called the curse of natural resources. In the author's point of view, many times the natural resources become a curse for the countries. The author gave the example of the Dutch economy. The Dutch economy was negatively affected by its resource of gas in the North Sea.

6. How has “landlocked with bad neighbors” affected Uganda?

Answer: Landlocked countries are handicapped because they are greatly dependent on their surrounding countries. Uganda is one of these countries whose transportation cost is high. The reason behind it is that it is dependent on its surrounding countries like Kenya, Congo, Somalia, Sudan, and Tanzania. These all countries are in the list of developing world countries having no good transportation infrastructure and no corridors to the nearest sea. These countries are also encouraging the potential markets. So this is the landlocked with bad neighbors which are affecting Uganda.

7. What strategies can a landlocked, resource-scare country attempt to improve their economies and standard of life?

Answer: There are nine different strategies which should be adopted by a resource-scare country to better their economic level and living standards.

The landlocked countries should take appropriate measures to decrease the trade barriers inter and intraregional level

The countries should encourage the neighbors to follow sound policies

Countries should take extraordinary measures to develop the access to the trade to the sea

Implement such policies which enhance the business of the nation

The country should focus on cost-cutting airlines and electronic services

The country should apply such tactics which promote the immigration process

Encourage the investigation of natural resources within the country

Country should admit that the industrialization will come in the country the rural sector should be privatized

Apply and implement such strategies and policies which will attract the aid into the country

8. What are the costs of neglect for the G8 countries?

Answer: According to the author the change for the bottom billion and developing countries must come from the inside of these countries. But neglect to the worst situations of these countries will become a nightmare for the developed nations.

G8 countries should try to help the developing and bottom billion countries. Its neglect affects negatively to these countries, and it will be a threat arises, which is based on the war. Means the bottom billion countries will declare war for the developed nations if the developed of G8 nations will not help them or in other words aid them.

9. How does the author think that aid can make things in the developing world worse?

Answer: According to the author aid coming from developed nation to the developing nations has the tendency to increase the growth of the countries. Many countries are giving support to the developing countries in the modern world. Aid no doubt helps the countries but it also increases their dependency on the developed nations. If the aid is in the form of technical assistance for the countries, then it will help the countries in turning around failing states. Studies suggested that the diminishing returns come from the aid, which recommends that overall aid is not best for the developing nations.

10. Is regional integration the answer to the problems of the “Bottom Billion”?

Answer: No according to the author regional integration is not the answer of the “bottom billion” countries. The reason behind it is that there will be a huge threat of civil war arises. Regional integration will affect the bottom billion countries as well as the developed countries. It is not a satisfactory solution for the bottom billion problems. There should be another approach or strategy developed for the bottom billion and their problems, not the regional integration. It is a bad solution to the bottom billion problems and issues.


Schindler, Z., & Collier, P. Paul Collier's The bottom billion (1st ed.).

May 02, 2023

World Life


HR Management Home

Subject area:

Countries Conflict Neighbours

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