War and Global Conflict

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According to Pinker (2016)

The planet is more stable than it has ever been. The reduction in violence around the world can be traced to civilizational markers such as government, literacy, and trade, which have played an important role in motivating humans to suppress their violent urges by being empathetic to others and using arguments to solve problems. The new epoch is thought to be the most stable in the history of the human race. Violence has declined at different social levels, including the home, community, tribes, countries, and governments. Six major patterns have been identified as critical in the decline in crime. The first development took place 5000 years ago during which humans evolved from hunters and gatherers to embrace agricultural civilization. Agricultural civilization contributed to reduced rates of chronic raiding and feuding. The second transition occurred during the enlightenment between the late Middle Ages and 20th century. Central authorities that maintained law and order and managed economic infrastructure emerged during the period (Pinker 326-328).

The 3rd transition

That contributed to the reduction of violence took place during the 17th and 18th centuries in the Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Various forms of violence such as slavery, superstitious killings, dueling, cruel punishment, despotism and judicial torture were abolished by organized movements during the period. The end of World War II marked the fourth transition that contributed to peaceful co-existence in the world. Unprecedented development took place after the war ended, and nation stopped waging war against one another. The fifth trend is the reduction of armed combat after the end of cold war. The last factor that has promoted peaceful existence was the declaration of human rights in 1948. Psychological faculties responsible for the inhibition of violence like reason, self-control, moral sense, and empathy are cited by Pinker (2016) as having played a key role in creating a calming effect in the society. Feminization is also considered to be a factor that promotes peace since women are less violent than men. People have become aware of the futility of war through the application of knowledge and rationality to human affairs (Pinker 329-331).

According to Lifland (2016)

Cybercrime has emerged to be a serious problem in the current digital generation. Ensuring safety and confidentiality of information on the online environment has become difficult due to increased infiltration of the internet by hackers. The law enforcement agencies and FBI have been struggling to identify and apprehend cyber criminals responsible for attacking websites and internal servers that belong to the state, federal agencies, private entities, and individuals. Millions of dollars have been stolen by hackers who focus on enriching themselves through identity theft and other frauds. Government agencies across the world have not been spared by hawkers. The U.S administration has taken unprecedented steps with the aim of ensuring the security of cyberspace. The Obama administrated enacted several legislations targeting cybersecurity (Lifland 309).

The two approaches to cyber defense

That have been taken by various nations include cracking down cybercrime without interfering with the free flow of information and taking defense measures by limiting the free flow of information. There is yet to be agreement on whether cyberattacks should necessitate the use of force against another country. Outlining the types of cyber attacks that constitute an act of force is considered to be one of the main objectives of international cyberspace treaty. Developing cybersecurity legislation at the domestic and international level has emerged to be a difficult task due to the difficulty of pinpointing the perpetrators of cyber attacks and how best to respond to them (Lifland 310).

Works Cited

Lifland, Amy. “Cyberwar: The Future of Conflict.” Academic Writing, Real World Topics Concise Edition, edited by Michel Rectenwald and Lisa Carl. Broadview Press, 2016, 309-311.

Pinker, Steven. “Why the World Is More Peaceful.” Academic Writing, Real World Topics Concise Edition, edited by Michel Rectenwald and Lisa Carl. Broadview Press, 2016, 324-333.

November 03, 2022


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Peace Literacy Problems

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