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Bones in the human body enhance an upright posture and maintenance of body structure. Bone homeostasis is a continuous process in the human body that endeavors to maintain the amount and structure of bones. Bone homeostasis occurs through the remodeling process that involves the destruction of old bones with the formation of new bones with a transition period that necessitates the reversal to new bones within the body. The bone homeostatic functioning entails bone remodeling which is crucial towards improving the skeleton resilience towards mechanical force and other internal functions. However, an imbalance in the bone homeostatic results in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. As such, there needs to be a balance between the rate of bone formation and bone destruction in ensuring that the body has the capacity to carry out its functions without disproportion.
Bone homeostasis occurs through the action of various hormones, and internal influences that result in bone formation and destruction. While the osteoblasts enhance the formation of bones, the osteoclasts cause the destruction of bones which contribute to the changes in bone structure and numbers in the body (Rodan, 1998). Additionally, Florencio-Silva et al., (2015) note that the hormones, cytokines, the biochemical synthesis, and stimulation in the body are responsible for the formation of bones. Elsewhere, the process of bone homeostasis occurs through particular transcription factors and chromatin modulators which are controlled by the production of hormones in the bones (Thaler et al., 2016). Thus, although there are no single factors that are associated with the formation and destruction of bones, there is evidence in the action of naturally occurring hormones in the human body.
Furthermore, Rodan (1998) emphasizes that the differences between the homeostatic balance of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts result in a bone loss which could inhibit the effective functioning of the human body. Besides, Rodan study sought to understand the impact of the imbalance between the osteoclastic and osteoblastic bone remodeling processes through the inhibition by inhibitory hormones in individuals over a given period. Again, the genetic miRNAs also play a crucial role in inhibiting osteogenesis responsible in the active bone formation (Pi, Li, Zhou & Gao, 2015). During growth, it is apparent that individuals experience a continuous bone formation and the maintenance of its structure occurs within the growth regions containing the hormone and genetic materials. The different requirements for bone formation and destruction processes require different mechanisms with no correlation.
In conclusion, knowledge of the structural and biological functions of the cellular components of bones improves the comprehension of bone formation and destruction. Researches on bone homeostasis explore the formation and destruction of bone tissues in the human body. The process of bone homeostasis necessitates the production of hormonal substances within the human body in alteration to give rise to cells associated with the bone remodeling process. Through genetic engineering, it has been possible to understand the interacting aspects of bone homeostasis and the underlying factors responsible for the two major processes. However, there is little information regarding the impact of the mechanical usage of the body on the bone structure as most research dwell on the internal aspects of the bones. Moreover, undertaking research in the dynamic nature of the tissues and molecular compositions found around the bones will inform on the appropriate therapeutic approaches of dealing with osteoporotic conditions among patients. Longitudinal studies would highlight the extent of multiple variables in maintaining bone homeostasis.
Florencio-Silva, R., Sasso, G. R. D. S., Sasso-Cerri, E., Simões, M. J., & Cerri, P. S. (2015). Biology of bone tissue: structure, function, and factors that influence bone cells. BioMed research international, 2015.
Pi, C., Li, Y. P., Zhou, X., & Gao, B. (2015). The expression and function of microRNAs in bone homeostasis. Differentiation, 16, 17.
Rodan, A. (1998): Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 95, No. 23, pp. 13361-13362
Thaler, R., Maurizi, A., Roschger, P., Sturmlechner, I., Khani, F., Spitzer, S., ... & Klaushofer, K. (2016). Anabolic and anti-resorptive modulation of bone homeostasis by the epigenetic modulator sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate. Journal of Biological Chemistry, jbc-M115
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