Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities

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To create and evaluate theory, this study employs survey data and experiments to investigate human intellect as evidenced by language aptitude. The study is based on a review of extant case research literature as well as data gathering and analysis from demographic survey-based research. The need for survey research to collect and synthesize data for testing this idea is motivated by the need to cope with the wide range of challenges that arise during IQ testing. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to contribute to the quality of research analysis and further the understanding of the demographics of human intelligence. Study findings offer empirical data on the occurrence and frequency of intelligence as well as the differences found among various racial and ethnic backgrounds. In attempting to answer these questions, the researcher presents a synopsis of the most recent research on the processes and performance used in discovering the cognitive and communicative techniques employed in responding to survey questions.

Key words: human intelligence language aptitude intelligence testing

Thesis Statement: The theory of multiple intelligences identifies several unique intelligences and explains that every student has different ways of understandings and also learning.

Literature Review

The article CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research (McGrew, 2009) examines the Cattell–Horn Gf–Gc as well as the Carroll Three-Stratum mode of psychometric-based approaches to comprehending the formation of human intelligence. The author of the article holds that even though these two modes are different in several aspects, the major associations among them has led to the greater use of a wide covering expression for analysis of the two models (Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities—CHC theory). (McGrew, 2009).

The objective of the journal article is to define the CHC structure while proposing the application of the CHC taxonomy as a familiar classification for outlining results from research and a theoretical framework by intelligence studies through which testing hypotheses relating to several aspects of human cognitive abilities. This article argues that the coming forward of this CHC framework must not be seen as the epitome of the psychometric period of issue critical research. Instead, it suggests that the CHC framework provide the springboard to strengthen the exploration into the composition of human intelligence. (McGrew, 2009).

The works, Methods for Classifying Errors on the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Test. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society by Kunda, M., Soulières, I., Rozga, A., and Goel, A. K.( 2013), were particularly of interest because of the direct discussion on important aspects of the research topic that they presented. Analysis about other works was found within these works which identified directly with the research topic. Within the area of scientific research and education, the sources identified included but were not limited to the following:

A comparison of all the information sources used reveal that they all permit the online accessing of sources of information from the World Wide Web which comes with the advantage of availability, diversity and current information. It is necessary to have well developed research skills in order to access the required information records from online libraries and online research databases and it is likewise important to examine other reviews of the selected sources for the bibliography as this is valuable in deciding between the wide variety of texts, journals, documents and research reports which have been identified from libraries, archives and websites in relation to the subject of the research. The sources used in the literature review were selected because they placed emphasis on scientific, experimental, qualitative as well as quantitative approaches. They have also been selected as examples because they traverses the areas of scientific, social, educational as well as medical research and study and have identified many crosscutting issues within these fields, this served to further improve their quality as information sources.

Finding of references has been successful because the basis of the search approach for the sources used in the literature review of this research topic was mainly fundamental scientific research studies but also covered a broad range of both primary and secondary sources from case studies and experimental research. Successful finding of references was also supported by a strong bias towards primary sources from online libraries together with additional primary as well as secondary sources from journal repositories, research work and case studies all of which have been incorporated in the literature review. The exact definition of intelligence as relates to the application of the concept to learning and education can be challenging. Historical theories centered on particular or common abilities. Charles Spearman’s (1904) idea of general ability, also known as g, entail recognition of relationships. Intelligence is viewed as ability to judge well, it is also referred to in terms of good sense and practical sense as well as initiative or the ability to adapt to circumstances. Good judgement, good comprehension and good reason, are the fundamental behavior that define intelligence (Binet & Simon, 1905, p. 43).

Current theories of intelligence emphasize knowledge as well as abstract thinking in intelligence definition of (Hegarty, 2007., Aiken, 2003). Intelligence is also defined with relation to how the brain works to generate intelligent actions for instance, solving problems, adaptation and learning. (Sternberg, 2011). The Binet-Simon Test is one of the methods that has been used to measure intelligence. Contemporary methods of measuring intelligence include the I.Q test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (Kaufman-ABC) Stanford-Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), psychometric test and aptitude tests. Intelligence tests can improve every students ‘opportunities for learning all students but can also become and additional obstacle to certain children's progress

In Jacobus, L. (2013). Designing Education for Understanding. In A world of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers (Ninth ed., pp. 619-643), learning or instructive content as well as curriculum should be designed with the goal of understanding and the outcome being that learners can utilize the knowledge gained to within any circumstance. The principal idea is that the disciplines of arts, science, history and math are very essential as the enable order the understanding and appreciating of cultural values of truthfulness and good.

Jacobus holds that the concept of depth is much more important than breadth when it comes to the study of disciplines. However, he also believes that studying each class of every discipline it not helpful, instead learners must explore with adequate depth a suitable category of learning. The author points out that difference in students presents many challenges to educational structures which takes for granted that every student is able to learn similar material in a similar manner and consequently, a standardized, common system is adequate for testing learners’ abilities.

In the peer-reviewed evidence-based journal article, Cognitive complexity and task sequencing: Studies in a componential framework for second language task design, (Robinson, 2005), appearing in the IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Peter Robinson examines cognitive tasking, which essentially refers to the transmission of intelligence among individuals and the effect this has on cognition and task dynamics. Using managerial simulations, multiple, convergent measures of emotions as well as group dynamics, these study tests hypotheses on the degree of difference of cognition effects which results from the level of pleasantness or difficulty of tasks, as well as the energy with which the difficulty or pleasantness is transmitted.

After establishing that differences in cognitive and task completion abilities was present in groups, the research then looks at the effect of these differences both on group processes and attitudes at the individual-level. As expected, the experience of positive cognitive ability resulted in improvement of task completion, decrease in frustration and increase in perceptions of task performance as evaluated by outside observers, other group members, and self. The converse was observed when negative cognitive ability was experienced. This article also discusses the theoretical implications as well as the practical consequences of cognitive complexity within groups and individuals as well. The research method is structured observation that incorporates a collaboration of passive non-intervention in a naturalistic observation with the methodical manipulation of the independent variables together with precise control portray in laboratory experiment. The Structured observation occurs in a laboratory setting with the observer intervention taking the form of a partner who establishes the situation for observing behavior.


In this study, one independent variable which was Task Difficulty was manipulated at three levels, easy, moderate and hard. The dependent variables on the other hand were Frustration with the task, Time to complete, personal ease, and ease of others. These dependent variables could be measured and relied on the independent variables because their result could change depending on the independent variable, for example, the type of study the subject gets: easy, moderate or hard. The aim of the study was to measure an individual’s frustration depending on the ease or difficulty of the anagram task, it was seen that the manipulations worked. In the data, it is again evident that the harder the task, not only did it take the participant longer to complete it, but they also rated it as more frustrating for themselves. Participants also found that others would find the levels of difficulty to be more frustrating as the anagram became more and more challenging.


Out of the three participants surveyed, two of these were male (66.7%) while one was female (33.3%). The age of the sample ranged from 11 to 51 (M=30.67, SD=22.37) and this included 100% Caucasian (N=3). Participants reported they were more frustrated in the hard condition (M=9) than the easy condition (M=1). The result of the conducted F-Test, F (2,0) = 16.333, p

April 19, 2023

Science Education

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Theory Experiment Study

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