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Kidney disease, also known as kidney failure, is a progressive illness characterized by the slow deterioration of renal functions of the kidneys. Kidneys are essential organs in the body that aid in the absorption of urea from the blood and the filtration of extra fluids. The waste is secreted through urea, which is a byproduct of kidney activity. Very few signs are seen in the early stages of kidney failure, indicating that the patient is suffering from the disease's later stages (Andrea, Robin, Sana, Gillian, Rahelle, & Erika, 2015). Because of recent epidemiology figures, a diagnosis of kidney disease can be frightening at first. It is estimated that about 23 million Americans are suffering from the condition and according to research on the predisposition rates among races African Americans were 3 times more likely to suffer from the condition compared to whites. The expenditure on both research and managements of the condition are relatively high. For example, the NIH spend amount $655 million in conducting research on the disease. The amount spends by patients in the management of the disease have been estimated to be about $250,000 for end-stage kidney failure management (Boland, 2011). Kidney failure has been on the increased since 1990, and in the past decade, the predisposition rates have almost doubled (Dains & Sceibel, 2012). The common observation by many types of research is that about one-thirds of the patients managing diabetes are more likely to suffer from a kidney condition. However, Kidney disease is a manageable condition if detected early. Kidney disease can be easily be detected by conducting a simple blood test to evaluate the rate of renal functionality and also by monitoring the rate of excretion
The majority of the people in the population are at risk of developing kidney conditions, and existing body of literature shows a number of predisposing factors to kidney donation. In most case, anything that reduced the glomerular function predisposes one to kidney disease, but there are known predisposing factors that have been identified to contribute to kidney disease (Boland, 2011). Research has shown that the epidemiology of the disease is associated with different clinical conditions. There are specific and potential risk factors that have been associated with the disease because of the strong causal relationship that has been identified as the factors. Some of the predisposing factors are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.
Kidney diseases are closely linked to chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus and according to research patients suffering from diabetes were more likely to develop kidney disease. Diabetes has been for long been associated with age, but with the increasing predisposition, it is likely that the condition with spread to the younger age groups (Gotch, 1993). Diabetes has also been associated with the increasing severity of the kidney condition and according to American Diabetic association development of diabetes doubled the risk of one developing kidney disease (Bartholmew, Kok, & Gottlieb, 2006). Researchers confirmed the same as patients diagnosed with diabetes had higher chances of developing kidney disease in the next two years.
Hypertension was another condition that was commonly associated with kidney disease. Studies have shown that patients with hypertension have higher predisposition rates to kidney disease (Gotch, 1993). Similarly, patients who have smoking problems were significantly predisposed to the condition. Smoking can be considered a predisposing factor for both hypertension and cardiovascular disease and hence the positive correlation to kidney failure.
The final predisposing factor is age; it is evident that older people were likely to be affected by kidney failure in comparison to younger people (Boland, 2011). Kidney failure has been recorded more in patients older than 65 years, and this relationship has been attributed to the reduced function of organs a people age. Also, older people are more predisposed to other chronic conditions like hypertension and diabetes.
Diagnosis and Management of Kidney Disease
Kidney disease can be detected in early stages by conducting simple blood test or conducting tests like histopathology, MRI, and even ultrasound. Conducting urinalysis can help detect the disease in its early stages (DoD, 2014). Usually, kidney patients will experience glomerular inflammation, and in some cases, this leads to proteinuria or leakage of blood cells into the urine, once detected time the management approach should begin immediately so as to manage the condition (Gotch, 1993). The management approach is based on the stage of the condition and the extent of damage that has occurred. Although drug replacement therapy and other approaches can be used the first stage of the disease can be managed using dialysis.
Usually, the kidneys have the function or removing urea and wastes from the body, but in the case of kidney failure then the kidney is not in a working condition to get rid of the wastes from the body. A dialysis is a form of treatment that functions to clean the blood by the use of dialysis machine (Gotch, 1993). The dialysis machine id designed to work just like an artificial kidney and it is used to filter the wastes and Urea from the body. During dialysis, the nurse place needles into the veins and the pump in the dialyzer draw the blood from the body and pass the blood through the dialyzer. The dialyzer consistent of thin microfiber filters just like the ones in the glomerulus, and as blood passed through the filters, it is cleaned. The dialyzer filters out all the wastes, excess water and salts. The filtered blood from the dialyzer is then pumped back to be a body. Although dialysis can replace part of the kidney function, it does not work as effectively as the human kidney (Andrea, Robin, Sana, Gillian, Rahelle, & Erika, 2015). The objective of dialysis is to manage the condition ate early stages, but it will not cure the condition, In addition, there are changes associated with dialysis and one of such challenges is blockage of the dialysis tubes that can reduce the efficiency of the procedure (Audo M, Furguson, & Njoroge, 2005). Also, the treatment is likely to later the body blockage of water and body fluids and as such the patient can experience side effects that can wear off with time. It is also important to adopt healthy eating habits to cope with the nutrient losses during the dialysis process.
Kidney condition is a serious condition that is affecting many people in the world today due to the many predisposing factors for the disease. The disease can be managed if detected early and dialysis is one of the many lives saving strategies that have assisted many kidney failure patients to improve the quality of their lives. Dialysis is easily accessible, and it comes cases the cheap option to other surgical procedures like a kidney transplant. It is this important for the patient to discuss with the physician on the best management approach to managing the condition.
Andrea, S., Robin, H., Sana, A., Gillian, S., Rahelle, F., & Erika, B. (2015). Catheter Ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Maryland: agency for Healthcare Research.
Audo M, O., Furguson, A., & Njoroge, P. (2005). Quality Healthcare and its effects on the utilization of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East African Medical Journal .
Bartholmew, L., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, H. (2006). Planning Health promotion programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boland, M. (Director). (2011). Infection control in Healthcare: Video Education Australia [Motion Picture].
Dains, B., & Sceibel, P. (2012). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care. Elsevier .
DoD. (2014). VA/Dod clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease in primary care. Department of Defense .
Gotch, F. (1993). Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. American Journal of Kidney Disease , 21 (1).
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