Metabolism Essay

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The Calvin cycle entails CO2 reactions in the chloroplast independent of light to facilitate production of food for the plant through photosynthesis. The first phase is fixation which involves three components of reaction namely CO2, RuBP, and RuBisCO. The three facilitate a light-independent reaction whereby the RuBisCO acts as the catalyst to increase the reaction between RuBP and CO2. The product of the reaction is the formation of organic molecules of CO2. The second phase is Reduction which involves the use of NADPH and ATP to the conversion of 3-PGA to G3P which are both made of six molecules. This results in the production of energy. The third phase is called Regeneration whereby more RuBP required for the next fixation phase is regenerated. One G3P which contains three carbon atoms is used in the three phases of Calvin and doubles to increase the numbers.

Question 2 a)

Where electrons come from and how it gains energy during light reaction

Electrons are produced through hydrolysis process which is broken out during photosynthesis II. They gain energy from sunlight during light reaction.

Question 2 b)

How energy in the electron is used to produce the energy-carrying molecule, NADP, and ATP.

The energy enables the electrons to undergo different chemical reactions to produce NADP. During photolysis, protons are produced which in turn enhances the conversion of ADP to ATP which is facilitated by an enzyme.


Effect of increased global temperatures due to climate change on C3 and C4 plants

The rate of photorespiration will be increased hence loss of CO2 resulting in insufficient Calvin cycle. That will slow the growth rate and production of glucose hence lowering the quality of the C3 plants. The C4 plants will continue with normal growth due to their adaptation of hot climate.

Question 4

Effect of diet and exercise on the overall rate of metabolism

Both diet and exercise have the effect on metabolism. However, the diet has the ability to decline the reduction of metabolic rate during resting. That is because metabolism is a continuous process and it needs to be effective in maintaining the ideal body weight at all times. Exercising increases the metabolic rate only during the process of exercise but not when the body is dormant. The diet contributes to the regulation of metabolic rate regardless of the body activity status. The resting metabolic rate is determined by the amount of calory intake and the energy used by an individual. Dietary restriction together with reduced resting metabolic rate results to poor weight loss outcome. That means that an individual cannot maintain the metabolic rate by combining both diet and exercise.

Question 4 a)

Energy requirements per gram for Carbohydrates, proteins and fat.

4 calories of are provided in 1 gram of protein or carbohydrates and 9 calories are provided in 1 gram of fat.

Question 4 b)

The relation between high-fat dietary intake and metabolism

Fats use the same digestion path with minerals such as vitamins, therefore, inhibiting their metabolism. That in turn results to the development of metabolic complications such as obesity.

Question 4 c)

Relation between increased exercise and metabolism

The rate of metabolism is increased by increase in exercise because more energy is used up by the body cells.

Question 4 d

Causes of increase metabolism apart from exercise

Increase in high energy diet and adequate sleep increases the rate of metabolism.

August 04, 2023
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