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When the judge overseeing the case is considering his or her decision or deliberating, which happens after the court has received testimony from both parties, the case is said to be under advisement. Before the judge renders its decision, advice is given. For instance, a recommendation for a particular case may be made regarding the amount of days, such as 30, 60, or 90 days.
The term "disposition" refers to how a case or problem is resolved in court. This may refer to transferring ownership of rights, property, statement, among others to another person through the court's judgment. For example, a court may decide to render an item to a specific individual through determination.
A review hearing is a judicial consideration to determine the presence of legal errors for reversal purpose of a bill, case or an issue through issuing of a notice of appeal. For example, a review hearing can be made to allow a previously heard case be done after the realization of some errors that were made in the previous hearing process.
Q2. Discuss the relationship between abuse, neglect, and juvenile delinquency.
Abuse defines the improper use of civil and criminal legal actions and procedures of administration. For example, the use of power for personal interests is an abuse of power. Child abuse, on the other hand, is the use of children for improper purposes. Abuse can be also be defined on broader terms to mean the act of unfair use of public or private resources. This unfair use of resources may mean to underrate, intimidate, and corrupt other people. The illegal use of power and authority for self-benefit and interests is the abuse. For instance, when a leader uses the power to intimidate people and engage into corruption related activities, then he/she is said to be abusing power. The use of utterances that do not contribute towards a supportive growth of individual also describes the term abuse. In a school, a teacher or administrator can abuse a student through insulting or using utterances that do not contribute to the positive growth of the child either emotionally, physically or even psychologically.
Neglect is the failure to show actions or showing actions that tend to pose an imminent risk of harm to one another by a caretaker. For example, a failure to take action by a parent to the children that tend to expose the children to physical injuries, emotional harm, death or even sexual abuse and exploitation. Neglect can also be defined as the ability of not participating in the roles and responsibilities entitled by the authority or an office purposely. A good example is the failure to take the responsibility entitled in the constitution of a country but instead act or work differently in a manner that contradicts that of the constitution.
Juvenile delinquency describes the habit where young people usually below the age of ordinary criminal prosecution engage in committing criminal activities. Juvenile delinquency is characterized by antisocial behavior, disobedience, persistence mischievousness, and violation of law that requires the intervention of their parents and through actions by the juvenile court. An example of juvenile delinquency is the truancy and stay past curfew periods (Siegel & Welsh, 2014).
Q3. Discuss the relationship between peers and delinquency, and if there is any linkage.
Peers are people with almost similar characteristics and abilities. For example, people of the same age such as 12-14years are peers. This is due to the many activities, skills, and characteristics they share in common associated with their age bracket.
Delinquency is a criminal behavior is a criminal activity, wrongdoings, misconducts, and misbehaviors that are perceived to be minor. For example, delinquency involves a misconduct done by an individual below the age of 18 years.
There is a link between peers and delinquency because the both resonate within certain age bracket.
Q4. Discuss the three different explanations for the association of between gang membership and delinquency
Adolescent's gang membership and delinquency have been observed, and three explanations are given concerning the delinquent behavior they express. This has been possible through comparison with those adolescents who do not have gangs or affiliates. Gang membership can be explained using in three ways using the hypotheses of facilitation, selection, and enhancement (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). The three explanations can be summarized as follows.
Firstly, gang membership evokes a deviant behavior in adolescents. This is the facilitation hypothesis.
Secondly, gang membership is associated with criminal activities in adolescents. This is the selection hypothesis.
Last but not least, gang membership in adolescents lead to selection and facilitation of work through interaction. This is known as the enhancement hypothesis.
Q5. Compare and contrast anthropological, the sociocultural, the psychological, and the rational choice of views of gang formation
Gang formation in peers involves a lot of factors that take place in and around individual's life activities. The interaction level and relationship an individual makes with the others contribute to the factors that determine his/her gang formation in society. The interests of an individual concerning the present gang's in the surrounding will also contribute to the formation of the gang by the individual. However, gang formation depends on other external factors such as sociocultural factors that tend to bind other people from making interaction at certain extends. For instance, it becomes difficult for a Muslim student to join a gang that is compost of Christian related students. This rarely happens in many societies hence gang formation of such combination is rare to find.
Another example is a gang formed by students sharing a different race. This applies especially in areas where there is increased racial discrimination of people. Such a combination is rare to find, and the most common will involve those where students sharing the same race such as black skinned children form their gang. Through this, they feel comfortable in such a gang than in mixed –raced gang.
Q6. Identify and discuss three views on the association between school failure and delinquency presented in the text
School failure took place when a student decided to gradually disconnect out of an educational system through slipping farther and farther behind his colleagues. The student through this activity drops before his/her graduation takes place in and hence the student participating in a number of criminal activities. School failure is closed associated with delinquency since the activity contributes to isolation from peers that would have likely contributed to fighting against in appropriate behaviors. School failure requires students to be actively engaged in school activities hence leading to participation in activities not in the school program due to truancy or absenteeism from school (Shoemaker, 2013).
Q7. Discuss the legal rights of students as they relate to personal privacy, free speech, and school discipline
Student’s rights are those regulations set to ensure that freedom and rights of the children are protected and upheld to help them invest in education comfortably. The rights can be divided into constitutional, civil, consumer and contractual rights. Students have a legal right to feel secure, free speech, autonomy, equality, accountability among others in the process of student-teacher and student-administration interaction. The legal rights and responsibilities of students in some countries are encompassed in a bill of rights that guide the conduit of children and their mentors such as teachers, administrators, and parents.
Q8. Discuss the association between drug abuse and delinquency. Be sure to provide examples
When people especially the adolescents engage in drug abuse activities, they tend to participate in activities that are against the law actively. Drug abuse tends to affect their reasoning and thinking capacities and abilities hence engaging in behaviors that are deviant and antisocial behaviors. Examples of these activities that individuals engage in through drug abuse include the use of speech wrongly especially an abusive language and even fighting other people near them. The drug abuse tends to affect the individual's abilities to reason properly, engage in constructive conversations, among others. The activities resulting from drug abuse are harmful hence the possibility of harming self or other people. Drug abusers neglect their duties and responsibilities thus contributing to deviant behaviors. For example, a student engaging in drug abuse is likely to neglect his/her duties and responsibilities at school thus contributing to activities such as truancy. Some students engage in criminal activities like robbery in order to get money to by the drugs. Others go to an extent of forming rogue gangs that are involved in the destruction of properties, robbery and disruption of peace in communities.
Q9. Distinguish between delinquency control and prevention.
Delinquency control is the power to create an influence on the delinquency behavior. Delinquency control is meant to make the current rate of deviant behavior to reduce to lower rates. While analyzing control, the said activities might be at lethal stages hence a need to make them low. Using drug abuse as an example, a student with a problem of smoking weed can be helped to control the weed smoking through ensuring that he does that in a regulated manner. Rehabilitating a peer smoking 10 rolls of weed per day may be controlled by giving him /her 8, 7, 6 until he/she reaches 0 with time. On the other hand, delinquency prevention is putting measures that ensure that delinquency does not occur at all. Prevention has a goal of ensuring the criminal activity is put to an ultimate end by ensuing that the act does not take place. Preventing an act like youth involvement in drug abuse can be done by ensuring that the youths are not accessible to any drug. This may be done by ensuring a youth-free drug environment. When this happens, then it is said that drug abuse is prevented. Educating them on the harmful effects of drugs can also serve as a method of preventing drug abuse.
Q10. Discuss the utility and effectiveness of mentoring, school programs, and job training programs.
Mentoring is an effective method since it guides the people involved especially adolescents on how to behave and engage in responsible activities. Mentoring helps people realize their dreams and their hidden opportunities behind them. In school children, mentoring helps them restrain from delinquent hence helping them focus on their goals and objectives. Mentoring in school children offers an opportunity to those who might be affected by deviant behaviors to restrain through the advice they take from mentors. Mentoring involves the use of a comprehensive program that helps evaluate the progress of the individuals through improvements made. In children, it will be effective since it is likely to test their level of understanding, growth and evaluation of challenges that face them. Last but not least, mentoring helps in selection and improvement of the mentorship program that will help individuals at given stages of life.
School programs are effective programs that help school children learn how to adapt and manage time. It helps children develop a sense of time keeping, time management and prepare top future tasks that involve proper use of time. School programs keep students busy through activities such as games and mentorship programs. School program are important part of student’s life since they contribute to a lot of learning experience both in and outside the classroom. The school programs are effective in the manner that they contribute to interaction between the learner and the other stakeholders within the school. For example, during the group work discussion period, learners are capable of interacting with other students and teachers hence strengthening their various skills, knowledge and abilities. The one-on-one conversation with other students while presenting the class work such as group work helps in creating a focused student. School program can also act as mentorship programs since it determines all the activities students will go through while in school hence mentoring them.
Job training programs offer skills and knowledge to individuals ready to work. It prepares them for the fundamental needs and requirements of the job. The expectations of the job are derived from the job training program hence helping job seekers prepare filly for the job. Job training program is essential in the manner that it allows people to psychologically evaluate his/her ability to counter the challenges that are likely to undergo while in the field of work. As a method of preparing people to effectively work, transition of skills and knowledge from senior individuals with experience takes place. Job training programs helps people make the choices they believe are right for them concerning adaptation to the work environment. The choice of friends can be done through work program where the individual undergoing the job training program selects people he believe will help achieve his/her dreams in the industry.
Shoemaker, D. J. (2013). Juvenile delinquency.
Siegel, L. J, & Welsh, B. C. (2014). Juvenile Delinquency: The Core, 5th Edition.
Siegel, L. J., & Welsh, B. C. (2016). Juvenile Delinquency. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
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