Richard Wiseman

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Richard Wiseman, who is one of the professors, said that there are different respects in which the living differ from the dead. One of the ways he highlighted is focused on the idea that the dead are related to the individual individuals they communicate to, and are therefore particularly expressive and creative. The medium used by the living to communicate with the deceased has been clarified to involve telepathy. Telephone correspondence is also a strategy used to communicate with the material aircraft. It is evident that talking to the dead through the use of medium has been a common practice in various nations across the globe to gain information from the spirit world. However, its impacts on the society are adverse and have been ascertained to affect an increased number of populations, which should not be encouraged in the community.

Mediums Communicating with the Dead

In the spirit world, a medium is explained as a device used to connect between the living and the dead. According to psychics, the medium enables the living to see the dead, stand with them and also hear their voices as the dead speak to them. There are some mediums that have been ascertained to encourage the belief by stating that they can see the dead standing by them. The mediums have not been proven true since the psychics are the only persons who are believed to see the dead but the other living persons cannot see them at all (Manigault-Bryant 5).

There are some mediums that have been explained by researchers as mental mediums and they are used to perceive the communicators of spirits inwardly. Despite the notion that the psychics claim to hear a voice, it is evident that there is an inner voice communicating to them and might not be related directly to the dead. The mediums operate similarly to when one either remembers the voice of an individual or hears some kind of tune ringing in their mind. The communication carried out between the psychics and the dead is commonly referred to as clairaudience, and this entails a situation where the medium gets to be aware of various sounds and impressions around them.

Communication through a medium is explained to entail some sensation, which includes an individual experiencing some physical conditions through the process. In most instances, mental effigies have been applied when various events related to the spirit communicating with the living are being carried out by the psychics. Therefore, according to the psychics, the communication between the living and the dead can only be attained successfully through mediums (Crofty 110).

Cold Reading

Cold reading has been explained by researchers as a technique applied by psychics, illusionists, mentalists, and fortune-tellers to develop an attitude that the reader might have more information that they actually do. In most instances, it has been proved that a cold reader would often read an individual’s body language, clothing, age, sexual orientation, religion, tribe or race to obtain more data and information about them that can be used to prove various notions. The concept of cold reading is commonly used when guesses are being made and have been ascertained to create adverse impacts on how activities are being carried out by individuals across the globe.

Hot Reading

Hot reading has also been explained as warm reading by other scholars and is a tool that is applied by professionals as well as psychics across the globe. While cold reading has been widely understood to entail reactions on subject’s responses, hot reading uses foreknowledge to react on various responses provided by readers and other audiences. This has formed the primary difference between the cold reading and the hot reading. In the case of hot reading, psychologists are known to play various tricks on individuals giving them an impression that the psychic and mentalist artist is either gifted or physically gifted. In most instances, the concepts developed by psychics applying hot reading have been found to confuse individuals and make them believe that all their ideas are true and reliable. The fact has led to a situation where persons tend to rely on information provided by psychics other than reality (Crofty 110).

Inflated hits/forgotten misses (confirmation bias)

The inflated hits have been explained to have been used by psychics to attract the attention of spiritualists, and this could be attained by adopting diverse techniques that could be assumed to be effective for the individuals who were being helped to understand the concept.

Editing for TV Shows

Editing TV shows have been used as another medium that is used by psychics, and this is attained by modifying the common shows that have always been known by people from various communities. In the modified scenes, individuals are made to understand that communication with the dead is possible and can be used to get information about what is relevant for the society about the future and various measures that need to be implemented to attain success.

Shotgun Approach

The shotgun approach is a technique that has been classified by scholars under the cold reading. The name is developed from the notion that a shotgun can be used to fire small projectiles, with the fact that either one or more of them will strike the target. The approach is applied when the cold reader has adequate information about a concept and then relays it to a recipient who will then develop an understanding that the cold reader knows what they are talking about. In this approach, the cold reader will express their guesses on what they have observed from the individual, including body expressions, language, character, tribe, and race (Valentine 2).

The Barnum Effect

The Barnum effect is applied in psychology and has been widely known to be used when playing with an individual’s mind, especially by psychics. In this case, the descriptions provided by an individual about their character, professionalism, and personality are used by psychics to prove that they have adequate information and they can also convince other persons about the notion.

How the Dead Communicate with Mediums

Some people are confirmed that dead can only be given the chance to communicate with the living through a medium. However, a medium cannot implement the fact that one’s spirit is communicated with the living. Psychics explain that the living persons are always required to open their minds and see what is before them. Telepathy is one of the mediums that have been applied over the years by psychics to hear from the dead (Crofty 111).

The Harm in Belief in Pseudo-Science and the Paranormal

The notion of talking to the dead has created adverse impacts on the society and the concepts of cultural diversity. Despite the notion that talking to the dead has been accepted by various communities across the globe, it is evident that the belief has led to some cultural values being lost in the society. Over the years, there were some traditional activities as well as cultural norms that do not allow talking to the dead. The principle has been wiped away in the society based on the ideas developed by psychics across the globe. Therefore, it is evident that introduction of the talking to the dead concept has created adverse impacts (Valentine 5).


It is evident that the impact created by the notion of talking to the dead in various communities is adverse and has led to a community where cultural values and practices have been neglected. Despite the fact that improved measures have been developed by scholars to assist in making certain that the concept has been understood as applying various principles that are not real, the concepts are still being adopted by many communities across the globe. The principles applied in talking to the dead have been changing and in most cases, a wide range of guesses that are applied by psychics takes place. Therefore, it is evident that the principles applied by psychics in the ideology of talking to the death have created adverse impacts on the operations being carried out in the society.

Developing a self-critical thinking is essential in the society as it assists in making certain that the psychics do not provide wrong information and convince the community that they are right. In most instances, it has been explained in the essay that talking to the dead is an aspect which has changed how individuals think about the dead as well as most of the cultural values that have been taken into the keen consideration over the years.

Works Cited

Croft, Andy. "Talking to the Dead." English in Education 49.2 (2015): 110-112.

Manigault-Bryant, LeRhonda S. Talking to the dead: religion, music, and lived memory among Gullah/Geechee women. Duke University Press, 2014.

Valentine, Douglas R. "Talking to the Dead: Religion, Music, and Lived Memory among Gullah/Geechee Women, by LeRhonda S. Manigault-Bryant, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014, xix+ 278 pp. ISBN 978-082-235663-9, US 89.95(cloth);ISBN978-082-235674-5,US 24.95 (paperback)." (2016): 115-118.

October 13, 2022
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