The Skin Essay

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The human skin is made up of three main layers namely epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous layer. The epidermis is the topmost layer, which is waterproof and it mainly consists of keratinocytes, Langerhans and melanocytes cells (Rehfeld et al, 2017). The middle layer is the dermis, which happens to be the thickest of the three layers. The dermis is made up of elastic fibers and sturdy mesh of collagen. The fibroblasts cells that are responsible for the formation of collagen, elastin and other vital structural molecules are found in this layer (Malina, 2012). The sebaceous glands, sweat glands, muscle cells, nerve cells, and hair follicles are found in this layer. The last layer is the subcutaneous layer that is found below the dermis. This layer is made up of connective tissues and fat molecules.

Question 2

The role of sebaceous glands is the secretion of an oily substance known as sebum that lubricates the skin and assists in making it waterproof.

Question 3

The adipose tissues are located in the subcutaneous layer and they play a role in storing fat. The tissues also assist in the cushioning and insulation of the integument. In addition, the adipose tissue produces triglycerides and vitamin D (Malina, 2012).

Question 4

The two types of sweat glands are the Eccrine sweat glands and the Apocrine sweat glands. The main difference between the two sweat glands is that the Eccrine sweat glands secrete sweat to the skin directly while the Apocrine sweat gland secretes sweat into the air sacs of the hair follicles.

Question 5

Keratinocytes are the most predominant type of cells that are found in the epidermis. These cells are responsible for producing protein Keratin, which helps in making the skin waterproof and tough (Rehfeld et al, 2017).

Question 6

Thin skin is the skin that has thicker dermis and has a numerous number of apocrine glands and hair follicle. The thin skin has very few eccrine sweat glands. The large part of the human skin is made up of the thin skin. On the other hand, the thick skin has a thinner dermis compared to the thin skin. It does not have the hairs, apocrine sweat glands, and the sebaceous glands. The thick skin is located in regions on the body that experiences high levels of abrasion such as palms and feet soles.

Question 7

The five layers of the epidermis are Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Ludicum, Stratum Granulosum, and Stratum Corneum.

Question 8

The two main layers of the dermis are the papillary layer and the reticular layer. The Papillary layer contains capillaries, sensory neurons and lymph vessels endings (Malina, 2012). The capillary endings are essential in the temperature regulation of the skin through increasing and reducing blood flow on the skin (Rehfeld et al, 2017). The sensory neurons ending are the ones that help the skin sense the stimuli. The reticular dermis contains connective tissue and blood vessels that help support the skin. It also assists in giving the skin its general strength and elasticity.


Malina, D. P. (2012). The integumentary system. Drain's PeriAnesthesia Nursing-E-Book: A Critical Care Approach, 222.

Rehfeld, A., Nylander, M., & Karnov, K. (2017). The Integumentary System. In Compendium of Histology (pp. 411-432). Springer, Cham.

August 04, 2023



Human Body Biology

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