academic literature

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The Importance of Scholarly Literature

The various pieces of scholarly literature were discussed from various points of view by the writers and speakers, but they all called out the same idea of an unbounded way for individuals to learn and improve in order to be a part of a community and lead to it being a much greater and inclusive one. Indeed, there have been many critiques and enlightened evaluations of the world's existing processes that shed light on where to begin or where to go if we were to reform them entirely.

Perspectives of Different Disciplines

The three pieces of the literature showed different perspectives of different disciplines, especially the works of Anderson and Cavajo, while Robinson's critique takes the previous' concepts in dichotomy. Anderson is a non-indigenous academic who studied the different ways in the life stage of a child belonging to an indigenous group. Cajete, on the other hand, is an indigenous academic who presented a perspective that is more of an insider than an outsider looking in. And Robinson's talk about the education system and how restrictive and sole-serving it is, comes from a perspective of a social academic who is seeing that there are other opportunities for which the world we live in can start to benefit the great number of individuals who are excluded for its perks.

Limitations and Perspectives

The authors' social position and expertise gives them both the benefit of getting as close to objectivity as possible and at the same time, limiting them to what others who have not the same background as theirs can see or view on the same situation. In a way, their backgrounds and expertise selects what they can see. However, in fairness to the authors, or anyone else, it is a difficult mental task to be able to see from all perspectives. Thus, with these limitations, the reader and audience can only work on what they are presented with and by his or her own point of view can find out what is to be learned there. Moreover, assumptions that are influenced by their backgrounds are always present in the ordeals of finding out answers about certain subjects, especially with regards to topics that are cultural in nature.

Anderson's Sociological Study

The Anderson's work is sociological in discipline while Cavaja's is an indigenous one. From their backgrounds as individuals, they can only choose one, as neither of them can recreate their birth to be in each other's ethnic group.

Key Ideas in Anderson's Study

The key ideas in Anderson's study is the child rearing of a certain indigenous group which, as opposed to European style of child rearing and upbringing, is a more loose and far less austere. The underlying concept which the author has built from separate pieces of perspectives of previous academics' studies, is that the indigenous group's non-interference to a child's development of own individualism is a cornerstone of their survival as a collective, and that is has a connection to their spirituality, concept of community, and the overall aspects of their culture. In a person's coming of age within this particular group, however, has a different approach that is also of same utmost value to their society. Overall, the concept of individualism is basically realizing that one is part of a collective and the coming of age is a phase where this is practiced by the individual after he or she has acquired the right amount of honing by their gods and the community as it takes one to raise a child.

Cavaja's Indigenous Study

Cavaja's study is more of a story-telling by a person who belongs to a particular culture showing the concepts from a first-hand source. His foundations of indigenous education which are community, technical environmental knowledge, vision, mythic foundation and spiritual ecology makes up an individual that is able to survive as part of the society and successfully lead his life in a sustainable, life-nourishing way. Every individual is born of a community, a society and a culture. It is intrinsic that we live with a collective since no man can survive as alone. This very concept has been imbibed among indigenous peoples all around the world. Moreover, the concept of technical knowledge whose application complements the environment for which we live in is essential to the collective's well-being for the long-term. In this light the vision or the dream of an individual as contributor to the society is realized at the right age. And finally, the spiritual ecology is the underlying spirituality of indigenous peoples in every part of the world, and where one's identity is centered on this.

Robinson's Critique of the Education System

Robinson's educational paradigms is a presentation of how dysfunctional and under-serving the traditional education system is and how it is modeled to fuel the working of the dominant, industrial-driven economy that is far-fetched from a paradigm that is existing within the systems of indigenous peoples, subcultures who are into aesthetic forms of intellectual expression. He presented how those within the system of the dominating economy is boxed and thereby formed to be a functioning tool for the continuum of a society that is heading for destruction. He presented how children in school are made to perform in a model that is an actual factory and grades and numbers are what is rational and rewarded.

Contrasting Indigenous and Dominant Systems

In contrast to indigenous systems, child development is not a system in fact, but a part of the cycle with which the society and individuals therein are just mere part takers and spectators. They hone from a perspective of being one with nature, that nature is life as it is one that gives them their very lives. Thus, child rearing is one that is given to nature and the human being to have its own form while the community just serve as stewards to the children as they have been stewards of nature. Their cultures-the set of beliefs, systems, traditions-are pattered after this and they can not do anything but thrive as part of it. Child rearing in indigenous communities have sets of norms to adhere to but is different from the European style. The indigenous understanding of the child is that it is an individual that is essential part of the continuum of the clan, group, society and serves as depositors of the indigenous knowledge systems and beliefs. While the dominating societies' concept of a child is one that is to be nurtured, an individual who should be educated to excel, fulfilling one's own dreams and aspirations. In these two paradigms of systems can we see the difference on having an individualistic thought versus acknowledging a collectivism as essential part of survival and life. However, it is fair to say that they are similar in ways that children are made to be thought as functioning individuals for the society. And it is also fair to say that each societies have their different critique corners that anyone can always look for.

Indigenous Vision for Education

The philosophical tenets of indigenous vision for education is one that is as simple as living in a world that is given. It does not seek for an "actual truth" or compare different thoughts of reality, but takes in on life as it is, in all its glory and presence in nature, the environment, ecology. And this comes more narrow into a society's culture that contains norms, belief systems and knowledge. Moreover, it is one that is anchored on the spirituality, the natural tendency to seek our for a higher being as it is made evident in nature itself.

Seeing Different Points of View

What I like best about the articles is that all speaks about a certain point, upping the other while criticizing another in perspectives different from each other. In this sense, I realized that even if I, a student, is able to see from different points of view, with as much eagerness and uncolored lens as possible even if I am inside and being honed in this dominating education system. In a way it is ironic but I can also say that it is just fair to say that our system has allowed us to look beyond its limitation and that the human mind, including and most especially that of a child, is limitless and unbounded even by the very system that hone it. As a student and a continuously learning person, I basically just want to learn about life and see from different specs from time to time. Because it is beautiful.

Building a Better Society

Thus, my question is what are the most important aspect/s of well-being that can both systems of education or child learning should focus on to hone generations who are better versions of the previous systems' production? And what are the aspects of both education systems that should be stopped? Ultimately, what makes a better society or what is that at its very basic level? How can such man-made systems build them and when should anyone start?

January 13, 2023
Category:

Literature Education

Subcategory:

Goals Learning

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