Alexander the Great

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In the public perception, not many conquerors in the past can contest the works of Alexander the Great.  In a couple of years from 330 BC, Alexander the Great managed to conquer the more significant territory of the world, and he established his kingdom that someday extended from Greece to India. Moreover, Alexander initiated a proceeding where the Greek lifestyle started to mingle with Central Asian, Egyptian, Indian, and Egyptian cultures that impacted much of the past World for several centuries.

The upcoming of Alexander’s biological father, Phillip II of Macedonia, was viewed as a danger by some self-governed towns in Greece; mainly Athens and Thebes. This triggered a war of Chaeronea in 338 BC in Central Greece, Boeotia where Alexander at his tender age of 18 played a focal responsibility directing the left wing of authority to aid secure triumph of his dad (Bose 33). The Calvary section managed by Alexander destroyed the blessed Band of Thebes which was one of the elite police previously recognized as invincible. This success stationed Macedonia in controlling location in Greece permitting the future exploitations of Alexander.

After the murder of Phillip in 336 BC, Alexander was pronounced the King of Macedonia at a tender age of 20. Notably, the demise of Phillip emboldened several tribe’s and states such as Thebes, Thessaly, and Athens to rebel. As a result, Alexander responded quickly by riding 3000 Calvary south to city of Thessaly to force them to resist (Bose 55). Soon Athens came to fold by sending their soldiers to envoy in town of Corinth where Alexander was crowned the title of Hegemon of the Greek men against Persians.

Before Asian military operations, Alexander wanted to protect his northern borderline. As such, Alexander marched north and destroyed the Thracian rebels led by King of Lllics, Cleitus, and King of Tauntii, Glaukias. These achievements were followed by the destruction of the town of Thebes that revolted again (Delbruck 191). These win at the made entire Greece welcome the reign of Alexander. Typically, within two years of Alexander’s rule, he ensured full command of Greece to focus his endeavors on Asia.

The Achaemenid domain discovered by Cyrus was among the great kingdom in history enlarging from the Easter Europe and Balkans to Indus located in the east. The empire was effectively managed via centralized governmental command using ordinary governor of regions under the watch of the King (Delbruck 191). However, as Alexander entered Asia a collection of several Straps and their soldiers waited for him at the Zelea city where the war was fought along the river banks of Granicus which is a present Turkey. By struggling on the bank, Alexander had reduced the benefits the Persians were enjoying and declared their fatal chariots unproductive on muddy and soft land (Freeman 26). The river enables Alexander to many worn battles, and he consistently used the place for subsequently wars.  For instance, Alexander ambushed the left with smartness and, therefore, making a cavity in the center with his forceful formation by placing his infantry to attack the Persian soldiers (Freeman 26). Ultimately, many high- profiled aristocrats were assassinated by Alexander by his horse champions and hence marked the end of the war.

The exchange of trade and ideas gave rise to an unprecedented era of knowledge and prosperity that transformed the old globe’s sciences and brought about several findings that would never be reproduced till the rebirth in the 15th century AD. What is exceptional is that Alexander realized this by the age of 32 at the moment of his demise in Babylon. Nevertheless, the genesis of all community transformation that would someday influence Egypt, Near East, Asia, and Europe rested in his prowess to defeat many territories quickly.

Alexander the Great accented to power after the demise of his dad, Phillip Macedon, who had hitherto arranged to attack the Persian in Achaemenid territory. Consequently, his first war was in the Balkans and Greece where he integrated his authority while suppressing many rebels. Soon entering the Asia Minor in 334 BC with about 40,000 soldiers, he speedily won his close first battle in Granicus (Wilcken and Eugene 60). This success and conquest permitted him to take over half of the western Asian Minor. Moreover, after little blockage and conquering the town of Sardinia, which is one of the greatest cities in Asia Minor, Alexander progressed towards Syria where he progressed the Persian leader in the fight of Issus. Notably, this was the first difficult task that Alexander demonstrated his excellent prudent reasoning by opposing the Persian soldiers via the utilization of his troopers (Wilcken and Eugene 60). Ultimately, Alexander made a head-on ambush on the King of Persian whereby his critical time in war became famous Roman span mosaic discovered in Pompeii.

After the confrontation of Issus, Alexander conquered the coastal Mediterranean towns and Levant which were strategic trading centers and permitted the Achaemenids to acquire much of the resources and developed their navy and progressed to Egypt. However, while in Levant and Syria, his only great experiences were the blockages of Gaza and Tyre in 332 BC. Conversely, Alexander was accepted quickly in Egypt by the locals as the Egyptians had opposed the Achaemenids in a while before coming of Alexander and, for this reason, Egyptians saw this an opening for the current leadership (Bose 14). In Egypt, Alexander was regarded as the child of Amum, the leader of the Egyptian deity, further glorifying him in front of his latest servants. Consequently, Alexander initiated the procedure of discovering towns of which the most famous city was Alexandria.  The latter is strategically positioned along the Mediterranean reflecting a significant transformation where the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt worlds would be strongly consolidated trade and culture in the future centuries (Delbruck 191). Typically, this was the reason why Alexander conquered Egypt as he had strategic reasoning and long-term goal about the future and nature of the conquered territories after his time.

The Achaemenids may have one more golden opportunity to conquer Alexander at the war of Gaugamela close to current day Erbil. However, Alexander's strategist proved strong-minded whereby his soldiers developed a wedge-shaped censure that then shoot in Darius town making the king to flee the war. Therefore, with this fight secure, the whole of Mesopotamia gave into Alexander, and the Great Alexander penetrated the principal town of Babylon without the demand for bloodshed (Delbruck 191).  Notably, it is at the city of Babylon that Alexander maybe decided to make it his current capital city of his vast kingdom as it was to unite the Near Eastern and Greek worlds more precisely. Additionally, he went to conquer Susa which was the old city of Persians and then public capital of Persepolis that was partly burned by Alexander’s troops.

The only Great War was fought against Persians at the confrontation of the Persian entrance which was deliberate crossing. This led to the demise of Darius III by one of his, and Achaemenid caucus continued to embrace the guerrilla war style against Alexander while they disagreed between themselves over the left-over of their kingdom. Because of this, Alexander crossed easily to Central Asia because of less revolt where he discovered many towns along the way that acquired the significance during the emergence of the Silk Road (Delbruck 191). This comprised of the Kandahar city in Afghanistan and then arriving at Tajikistan which is close to the edge of Tibet and his battles proceeded in India and Central Asia where he first experienced significant rebellion. Notably, Alexander’s struggles were the first and its where the European soldiers met war elephants which caused considerable fear in the army before overcoming them in the war (Freeman 26). Still, the impossibility of extended campaigning and undeniably loss of multiple people made them surrender the war and eventually making Alexander withdraw his forces forcing him to return to Babylon. Ultimately, at the end of the Alexander military operations, he had already developed his first kingdom that linked Central Asia and Europe.

Indeed Alexander’s achievements depend on his military prowess in understanding how to utilize his Calvary and soldiers precisely at important times in the war. More often, Alexander appeared close to defeat, but he managed to use the condition to his benefit by luring his rivals to deeper trap. Moreover, Alexander’s troops were well educated and trained to maintain their positions and manage fear in the war. Nevertheless, more of his achievements rely upon the strategic location of Achaemenid that enabled Alexander to coordinate his soldiers (Freeman 26). Notably, the Achaemenids were most successful kingdoms as they were able to unite great empires and also to consolidate the cohesive domain that had a well-developed infrastructure such as proper roads and traded extensively.

The Achaemenid town was successful, and many people had started to establish their settlements in by moving from their homelands. In essence, the world became small because of the liberal policies that allowed free movement of people. Although some regions including Egypt revolted against such systems, the truth is that they benefited many citizens from Achaemenids. Therefore, is this wonder, Alexander married from the Persian royal family and then took over the decorations of the Archaemenids sovereign (Wilcken 60). Moreover, this was another reason why Alexander made Babylon his capital city as it was one of the main towns and capitals of the Achaemenid domain despite that fact it was located in Mesopotamia. At this time, trade had expanded and bounded several cities, and Alexander understood this. Typically, this led to Alexander’s soldiers resenting on Alexander’s because of the Achaemenids since the Greeks had disregarded the Persians.

In summary, although Alexander perished before achieving his ultimate dream of making a super kingdom, the gains of the east were apparent to his men and generals where several lived after the struggles.  Modern Greek populace started to enter Near East, and the procedures of mixing Eastern and Hellenic cultures had commenced, and this led to the consolidation of knowledge that promoted the rise of scientific fields, mathematics, physics, and astronomy. Alexander’s legacy stayed for long after his demise and his soldier's achievements paved the way for the significant modern results that later became one of the bases of the rebirth of our current Western world.

Works Cited

Bose, Partha Sarathi. Alexander the Great’s Art of Strategy: Lessons from the Great Empire Builder. London: Profile, 2014.

Delbruck, Hans. History of the Art of War. Lincoln, Neb: University of Nebraska Press/ Bison Book, pg. 191, 2015.

Freeman, Philip. Alexander the Great. New York: Simon & Schuster, pg. 26, 2011.

Wilcken, Ulrich, and Eugene N. Borza. Alexander the Great. Norton Library. New York: Norton, pg. 60, 2016.

November 13, 2023

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Military Ancient Greece

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