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Break- Syndrome of the brain

Split-brain syndrome, also known as callosal disconnection syndrome, is a disorder characterized by a complex neurological cluster of disorders. The anomalies often occur from the complete severing or partial or lesioning of the nerve bundles of the corpus callosum, which are considered to be brain connectors, that is to say, the right and left hemispheres. Broken brain surgery leads to a condition where the two hemispheres do not share information as well as before. The division of the hemispheres influences actions and agency. After the separation of the right and left hemisphere, each hemisphere will have its concepts, perceptions, and impulses to act on and thus creates effects on patients and they include split personality. Split personality is kind of character where there is a total change of the body function of the patient as it has been functioning before the split- brain surgery has been conducted. In a patient with split- brain syndrome, the right hemisphere is for controlling the left hand and foot while the left hemisphere acts independently, thus a person can make rational decisions. In this scenario, the left hemisphere will give orders that reflect a person’s reasonable goals;, whereas the right hemisphere will issue demands that are conflicting hence will tend to reveal hidden desires.

Also, there is a creation of interesting dilemmas after the separation of the brains and one of the examples is a situation where a patient pulls down their pants with the left hand and backs up with the right in a continuing struggle. Such case is due to having two ‘’brains’’ in one body. Furthermore, when the split-brain patient is shown an image only in their left visual field, they are not able to vocally mention or name what they have seen. The explanations can be in three steps. Foremost, the image seen in the left visual field is only sent to the right hemisphere of the brain. Secondly, speech- control is always at the center of the left hemisphere of the brain for most people and finally, there is inhibition of communication between the two sides of the brain. Thus, the patient is unable to say out loud the name that which the right hemisphere is seeing and in the speech case the image must only be presented to only the right hemisphere of the brain rather than the left to achieve the same effect.

Another effect is the scalp numbness which arises due to the surgical process, however; paralysis, weakness, and loss of sensation might occur as well. Additionally, the patient has increased in partial seizures (occurring on one side of the brain).

The corpus callosum consists of a thick band of nerve fibers, which divide the cerebral cortex lobes into the left and right hemispheres. It allows communication between the two hemispheres because it is connected to the left and right sides of the brain. In the brain hemispheres, the callous corpus transfers sensory, motor, and cognitive information. It comprises of white matter fiber tracts which are known as commissural fibers.

Firstly, the corpus callosum has several functions on the body including communication between brain hemispheres. For communication to occur, the corpus callosum must allow the right and the left hemispheres of the cerebral hemispheres to communicate with one another.

Secondly, in the eye movement and vision, the corpus callosum connects cells so that their fields can span the midline, which therefore attaches two halves of the visual world. It also allows one to identify the objects seen through a connection of the visual cortex with the language centers of the brain. Thirdly, it maintains the balance of arousal and attention. Finally, tactile localization is the part of the brain which helps one to know where they are touched without them having to look.

Contributions of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric communication; in interhemispheric communication different a colossal function has been proposed. It works as a shield to reduce interference and to prevent dangerous intrusions from the opposite hemisphere.

Other examples where our emotions and cognitions are disconnected include when we experience the feeling of disgust. In such cases, the eyes apparently tend to narrow with the mouth shutting completely while the body moves way from the object of disgust. Furthermore, the disgust is typically triggered unconsciously by someone or something that poses an immediate health risk to a person such as a rotting beef which may contain parasites that are dangerous.

References

Aboitiz, Francisco, et al. "Fiber composition of the human corpus callosum." Brain research 598.1 (1992): 143-153.

Witelson, S. F. (1985). The brain connection: the corpus callosum is larger in left-handers. Science, 229, 665-669.

Sergent, J. (1987). A new look at the human split brain. Brain, 110(5), 1375-1392.

Sergent, J. (1987). A new look at the human split brain. Brain, 110(5), 1375-1392.

August 09, 2021

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