Lung Cancer

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Cancer is a generic word for several sets of ailments that can affect  the body of a human being.  The other terms that can also be used to refer to cancer are neoplasms and malignant (Low et al., 2018). One distinct characteristic of a tumor is the speedy production of atypical cells that develop beyond their familiar confines, and which in turn can attack connecting tissues of the body and multiply to other parts, the final happening of this disease is described to as metastasizing.  The primary cause of death from cancer is called Metastases.  One of the subsets of cancer is called lung cancer. The Incidence rates of Lung Cancer in Scotland is very high with nearly 5000 citizens die every year because of this deadly ailment. The passing on from this disease is thrice compare to other categories of cancer according to research done by Lung Cancer by the name Roy Castle Foundation. More than 5000 new cases were diagnosed in 2013 alone.

 Two theories that explained aspects of human health are conflict theory and the Functional theory. The conflict theory talks about disparity in the quality of healthiness and delivery of quality services of the health-care. It states that this services varies significantly all over the universe for example it is of high quality at Europe countries compared to Africa. Nations’s inequalities within gender lines, social class, and ethnicity and race, are produced again in hospitals. Persons from poor social homes are more possibly to become sick, and when they develop to be sick, insufficient medical attention creates it more problematic for them to be medically fit.  The substantiation of inequalities in health care and well-being is dramatic and vast (Berkman et al., 2014). The conflict approach likewise oppose struggles by physicians over the suggestion to manage the field of medicine and to outline several social hitches as medical ones. Physicians’ incentive for performing so has both have pros and cons.  On the advantage side, they have alleged that they are highest skilled experts to diagnose diseases and to cure people who have these challenges. On the other hand, they have similarly accepted that their monetary status will increase in case they prosper in portraying social difficulties as medical hitches and in dominating the cure of these complications. After these complications become “medicalized,” their imaginable social roots and consequently likely solutions are abandoned. The second famous theory is the Functional theory .The functional theory was develop by Talcott in the year 1951. The theory describes that better healthiness and good medical care are indispensable for a community’s capability to operate. Sickness weakens people’s ability to accomplish their duties in community, and in case a quite number of individuals are sick, community’s stability and functioning suffer. It was especially factual for early death, stated by Parsons, since it averts persons from wholly performing all their public roles and therefore characterises a “poor yield” to community for the several expenses of child care, birth, pregnancy and socialization of the person who will die at early before reaching maturity (DiLiberto et al., 2015). Poor health care is similarly dysfunctional for community, as individuals who are ailing undergo more difficulty in becoming medically fit and persons who are well are more possible to also to be sick.

 Epidemiology is the research and interpretation of the spread (Where, when, who) and factors of disease and health conditions in a given population.  In Scotland, the cancer of lungs - which does not translate to cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung - was the third most frequently detected type of cancer in women and men in the last one year. Furthermore, it is one cause of death in women and men in 2017.  The probability of Survival from this type of cancer is worse with just 9.5 percent of patients are alive four years since they were discovered to suffer from the ailment.  In 2018, 2,495 males and 2,552 ladies were found to suffer from the lung cancer in Scotland (Low et al., 2018).  Not taking into account non-tumor skin cancer, the tumor of lungs contribute to 16.5% of entirely malignant diagnosed in males, and 15.8% of all melanomas diagnosed in females. Grounded on the updating rates of illness, an approximate of 1 in 11 men, and 1 in 15 females experienced lung cancer in their existence in the world. In the last nine years, the age-consistent occurrence level of lung cancer reduced by 17.4% in males, while there was an increment of 2.5% in ladies. Factually, Scotland has been experiencing highest levels of lung cancer in the entire universe. Nonetheless, death rates in men are currently higher in some Europe countries especially Eastern sides, and the number of deaths of women in Denmark is slightly lower to that of Scotland (Berkman et al., 2014). Tobacco smoking is the key peril feature for lung cancer which estimated at 81-92% of incidences in industrialized nations. Other threat aspects comprise asbestos, ionizing radioactivity, for example, domestic contact to radon, and numerous chemicals frequently encountered in job-related environments (DiLiberto et al., 2015).  The cigarette smoke is the primary source of lung cancer, and it appears to be in more significant in the west of Scotland compared to some other sides of the country, maybe showing the additional effect of earlier working contacts or other issues such like nutrition.

 For the first in Scotland, a higher number of ladies are being diagnosed with the cancer of the lungs compared to men. It is the opposite of what has been happening for the years.  Organizations dealing with the ailment states that the statistics show how the number of women has increase smoking at the end of 20th century allied to marketing crusades intended for female smokers (Low et al., 2018). The investigation has proposed that females might riskier of experiencing the illness, even with the similar generation exposure to smoke of tobacco as males. The updated statistics reveal that 26% increase in incidences of women diagnosed in Scotland, from 2,041 in 1997 to 2,556 in 2016. The number of males’ attacks by the malignant has currently gone down in the last few decades while that of females have increased (DiLiberto et al., 2015).

The determinants of health can be the group to different categories like individual conduct, biology and genetics, health services, policy making, and social factors. These elements of health go past the limits of traditional public hospitals and healthcare sectors like environment, housing, education, and transportations. Some laws from local or national government affect health, for example, a bill that allows people to access free medical attention concerning lung cancer increases their survival rates. These reduce the number of death in the future as people can be screen at early stages and provided with appropriate medical services. Access to better health services ensures that experts attend to individuals in the right manner and the all required amenities are enjoyed by patients.

The effects of poor medical status have been found to be closely associated with socioeconomic status. Research reveals that people with low earnings restrain people from accessing quality services on the hospital. They are not able to raise funds for medical attention. Gender is a significant aspect as poor men and women undergo different problems associated with health risks, as they challenged by specific gender-associated diseases for examples, ovarian cancer, postpartum depression, and prostate cancer. It reduces the lifespan of different people as they cannot access healthcare to treat this ailment. The region affected by this deadly disease reduces the population, and the economic status of that region reduces.

Currently, in health centers, it permits for professional analytic and centers selected to offer more quality services to individuals and possible changes made to the locality of other facilities. Services are nowadays delivered and structured at the levels where they provided the finest, most important of all is service for clients. In different places in the country,  the localities of proficiency and preparation have come up with some acute services that have boost patient care (Borthwick et al., 2017). The structures of government structures of having supported changes and exploit ‘once for Scotland' competences for the kind of tasks all hospital services required to deliver.

The two risk elements are propensity and capability to use amenities and also the ability to pay for the facilities. Individuals are not able to get medical attention if they don't live near the geographical area of the hospital or in case health care facility will not attend to them if they lack funds or other matters (Bowden et al., 2017). Poor roads networks contribute a lot the accessibility to hospitals.  Country sides in specific have been known to be in short of adequate number physicians and, in precise, mental physicians. Secondly is capabilities to gather for services. Financial constraints to care, mainly among low-earners, have been lower in the in Scotland compared to other countries mostly in Africa and Asia.  Some hospitals lacks latest technology to be used in identifying diseases that individual maybe suffering from, this is because they may lack funds to purchase.

The models of health are health model and social model. Sound info plays a progressively crucial role in the delivery of up-to-date health-related care and productivity of medical systems. The types of medical data processed which comprise of patients' health records, medical center management and clinical roles, and also the human resources statistics. The government may use this data to estimate the number of doctors in the country; number of patients suffered from specific disease and among others. The government can reduce or scrap off taxes on technology tools that hospitals imports to keep this data (Bowden et al., 2017). Also, these factors are known to have significant implications on the services of health. The health models have offered for the technological brilliance, and cultured medical care and furthermore has headed to other drawbacks within the hospital delivery system (Grose et al., 2015).  The cost of health facilities increased rapidly, reduced access to this services, and to some extent poor medical results. Social model is concern with the attention on the theme of spiritual crisis. Many of the psychosomatic complications are connected with a spiritual catastrophe. The clinical difficulties are psychiatric complications interrelated to mystic practise; terminal disease, separation from a spiritual teacher, rigorous meditation, cognitive opening, shamanic crisis, near death experience.  Some government  policies permit for example for someone terminal sick  should be allow to  “killed” but religious people are against such views.  They consider everyone life as sacred and should not be terminated whatsoever. Transpersonal model identifies that transcendent psychosomatic conditions, and spirituality, may have both negative and positive consequences on functioning of human beings. Health-promoting expressions of holiness comprise of growth and development, but there also exist medical-compromising expressions of holiness. States considers that some diseases only require religious personalities to pray to get heal. 

Political and economic factors to a great extent affect government rules on health care. Having active labor movements ensures that working conditions of hospitals are favorable thus services the clients will be of high quality and vice versa. Health services funded using taxes are suitable to allow each person to access healthcare facilities and further ensure the coverage of the expenses of the disease. Lack of medical attention coverage has been associated with reduced healthiness and less exploitation of curative and preventive health care services. The factors of politics and economics ensure that government provides women just like men are employment with same terms and conditions. It improves wellbeing and health of the ladies and their young ones as they don't have to depend on male counterparts.  Having protective occupation offers women with economic freedom and intensifies their strength in their houses

The media especially social media (WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter,), advertising, radio, television and film to games plays a significant role in people concerning health facilities. For example use of media particularly youths may impact their health conducts, for example, eating habits, sexual activities and drugs use. In times of hospital crisis, media is offering particularly beneficial at assisting to protect and inform thanks to the rapid and wide-reaching capability of the device.   It reduces the spread of propaganda linked to prevention, risk zones, and treatment.


Berkman, L.F., Kawachi, I. and Glymour, M.M. eds., 2014. Social epidemiology. Oxford University Press.

Borthwick, D., Smith, A., McPhelim, J., Byers, J., Devlin, J., Docherty, K., Jones, K., and Ferguson, L., 2014. 106 The patient experience of lung cancer in Scotland. Lung Cancer, 83, p.S39.

Bowden, J., Macpherson, C., Boyce, S., Lyell, M., Fanning, S. and Scragg, S., 2017. OA21. 06 Turning Best Supportive Care into Active Care. A Service Development for Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer in NHS Fife, Scotland. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 12(1), pp.S328-S329.

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Iganski, P. and Mason, D., 2018. Ethnicity, equality of opportunity and the British National Health Service. Routledge.

Low, L., Salawu, A., Bates, E., Young, R., Danson, S., Fisher, P.M., Hatton, M.Q., Lee, C., Das, T. and Taylor, F., 2018. The North Trent experience of administering pembrolizumab to previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer, 115, p.S35.

Miller, P. and Rose, N., 2017. Political power beyond the state: Problematics of government. In Foucault and Law (pp. 191-224). Routledge.

October 13, 2023




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Cancer Lung Cancer

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