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Parenting

Parenting is a difficult concept to understand, and it becomes much more difficult when deciding on a parenting style to use when raising a child. Various parenting styles can easily be found based on a particular set of norms and characteristics. These styles produce a variety of results and have a wide range of effects on children's development. A strict parenting style can cause the child to become estranged from the parents, while a relaxed parenting style can cause the child to become impulsive and selfish. As a result, it is necessary to compare and contrast these various types. This paper aims to compare and contrast the characteristics of authoritarian or positive or permissive parenting styles and how they impact the development of the children.

The authoritarian child-rearing approach is a highly strict type of child-rearing which anticipates that a youngster will cling to fixed standards, norms, and controls set out by the guardians with practically an absence of input or correspondence with the kid (Weisleder et al., 2016). The authoritarian sort of child-rearing approach is often considered to lead to a cruel and inflexible enthusiastic atmosphere which involves a low standard of responsiveness from the parents and neglects the sustaining part of the youngster (Kaufmann et al., 2000). At the same time, it involves high standards of demands and expectations from the parents and demonstrates an urge to keep complete control over the children. A positively constructed correspondence is, for the most part, impossible in such kind of child-rearing approach. The parents, who develop an authoritarian approach, feel that they hold the extreme command and the youngsters should fit in with the expectations beyond a shadow of a doubt (Mensah & Kuranchie, 2013). The tenets are relied upon to be clung to with no space for the transaction or any sort of negotiation. The outcome of breaking a fixed norm or regulation is total discipline. Exclusive requirements of conduct are normal and outrageous esteem is set in compliance with an undeniable regard for authoritative control. By and large, these guardians are not extremely enthusiastic or tender and are regularly reproachful of their youngsters on the off chance that they neglect to live up to the desires (Mensah & Kuranchie, 2013). In this context, one should also note that this kind of approach has a wide range of impacts. The children brought up under the authoritarian parenting approach generally adhere to the discipline and fixed regulations and have a tendency to follow the rules at any cost (Kaufmann et al., 2000). This is indeed a positive effect. However, there are numerous negative effects which outweigh this positive aspect. The authoritarian parenting style negatively impacts the development of children in numerous ways. As the parents demand them to follow the guidelines and act according to the fixed norms, the children becomes hugely incapable to think as per their actual impulse (Weisleder et al., 2016). Moreover, they become detached from the society and find it tough to correspond with others. These youngsters might even submit to the difficult situations under pressure as they fail to develop enough self-esteem to deal with problems on their own. The kids might even show demonstrations of extreme anger, frustrations, and resentment. Furthermore, it has also been found out that the children reared up with authoritarian parenting style often exhibit low levels of academic performances which might impact their career in the long term (Zahedani, Rezaee, Yazdani, Bagheri, & Nabeiei, 2016). Therefore, the authoritarian style does not seem to be appropriately fitting for a perfect and proper development of the children as its features hinders the progress continuously.

For the guardians conforming to the authoritarian approach, rules seem to be more vital than the relationships or connections. These guardians have many tenets and they authorize them. They anticipate that and request adherence will exclusive requirements. Having elevated expectations for the conduct of kids isn't really a terrible thing. In any case, the way they approach accomplishing these exclusive expectations harms the connection between the parent and kid (Uji, Sakamoto, Adachi & Kitamura, 2013). The parents conforming to the authoritarian approach regularly neglect to clarify the thinking for the principles. Indeed, they don't take part in numerous discussions with their kids in regards to the principles. One can find out that not exclusively do such kind of child-rearing effect the present connection amongst parent and youngster, yet this kind of child-rearing can have long-haul consequences for the enthusiastic improvement of the kid even into adulthood (Phares, Fields & Kamboukos, 2008). There is a solid component of dread that plagues a tyrant family. Much like a tyrant government, there is consistency with rules, yet the consistency is normally not out of adoration. Youngsters in a tyrant home go along out of dread. The dread of discipline and dread of the withholding of friendship drives these youngsters to agree. Notwithstanding dread, the kids do not feel being adored and acknowledged by the parental figures. Youngsters are rebuffed for even minor infractions. Frequently, the disciplines fail to fit the wrongdoing and are excessively reformatory. Much more dreadful, the disciplines frequently result in relationship outcomes which incorporate a withholding of adoration and love from the guardians to the tyke (McKinney, Milone & Renk, 2011). Youngsters raised by tyrant guardians regularly are consistent with parental principles. Dictator guardians point to this consistence as confirmation that their style of child rearing is working. In any case, as with numerous things in life, there is an open door cost to choices we make. Growing up is troublesome, particularly these days. There are commonly that a kid will require help and direction as they develop. Since offspring of dictator homes don't encounter love and acknowledgment from their folks, they will look for advise from somebody outside the home, or they may look for no insight by any stretch of the imagination. While the dictator parent might be a decent individual who has much astuteness to offer, with regards to the significant issues of life, the youngsters don't look for their guidance.

On the other hand, positive parenting is considered to be an exceptionally capable and appropriate parenting style. The positive child-rearing approach normally drives a youngster towards adapting great esteems and having balanced convictions. This is the reason why it is essential for guardians to join in their child-rearing choices, to share the critical thinking, and to develop a perfect dialect (Schofield et al., 2012). This is a significant lesson for the tyke to see and hear that both the parental figures or care-takers can utilize emphatically implemented dialect, use assorted abilities to accomplish a positively identified result and at the same time, welcome the engagement from inside the familial unit (Dallaire et al., 2006). The part played by the positive guardians is to locate a center ground because the stress should be laid on the vital zone that mother, father (care-takers) and tyke figure out the manner to make a discourse around sentiments, in which the tyke figures out the process to see other points of view and along these lines, their qualities are framed (Weisleder et al., 2016). This is the premise of constructive child rearing and this is the aspect in which the guardians are encountering their own particular relational correspondence, tuning in to the own particular internal voice, which set them up for advance self-development and improvement as grown-up people, as couples, and in the form of familial units. The best advantage to demonstrating an assembled front in the form of guardians is obviously developing sound youngsters. The parents will pick up the upside of remaining inside solid limits and feeling secure in the realizing that the two guardians share the minding part (Whittle et al., 2014). This is a sound family powerful where guardians are the teachers, kids learn valuable fundamental abilities. The positive child rearing forms youngsters who have been given the endowment of self-revelation, figuring out how to carry on inside a social domain and develop to learn hint parts of themselves and every relative. Kids who can express feelings openly in a positive domain figure out how to wind up noticeably better pioneers and genuine bona fide people inside the familial and societal spheres (Whittle et al., 2014). The positive child-rearing condition enables the youngster to encounter this as a major aspect of self-direction, realizing that it is all piece of the pathway to developing sound kids. A strong family unit is a familial group which joins, adapts together and becomes together yet permitting every individual the open door inside the reliant structure in which to investigate (Schofield et al., 2012). Positive child rearing is a progression of strategies, aptitudes, properties, mentalities, inside discoursed and considerably more. On the off chance that we as guardians can discover the harmony between mind, body, soul or consider, feeling and instinct then the condition drives us to a more adjusted method for child rearing (Dallaire et al., 2006). In short, the positive parenting approach makes a balance amongst the authoritarian and the permissive approaches in order to make sure that the children learn how to obey the rules and at the same time, understand and realize the value of warm relationships as well as self-esteem.

The current paper has appropriately pointed out the features of the authoritarian and the positive parenting styles. While it has been found out that the authoritarian style relies on domination of the children, total control over them and providing them the minimal space to build a familial relationship, the positive parenting style is constructed through the balance between discipline and love. It has also been discovered that whereas the authoritarian approach might be obstructing to the wholesome development of a child, the positive parenting style may help a child achieve the desired outcomes with more potential. Therefore, it can be concluded that the positive parenting style is more appropriate and capable than the authoritarian approach and the parents need to appropriately balance between their urge for discipline and their responsibility toward the children.

References

Dallaire, D., Pineda, A., Cole, D., Ciesla, J., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., & Bruce, A. (2006). Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms. Journal Of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 313-322.

Kaufmann, D., Gesten, E., Lucia, R., Salcedo, O., Rendina-Gobioff, G., & Gadd, R. (2000). The Relationship Between Parenting Style and Children's Adjustment: The Parents' Perspective. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 9(2), 231-245.

McKinney, C., Milone, M., & Renk, K. (2011). Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(4), 463-481.

Mensah, M., & Kuranchie, A. (2013). Influence of Parenting Styles on the Social Development of Children. Academic Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 123-130.

Phares, V., Fields, S., & Kamboukos, D. (2008). Fathers’ and Mothers’ Involvement with Their Adolescents. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 18(1), 1-9.

Schofield, T., Conger, R., Donnellan, M., Jochem, R., Widaman, K., & Conger, K. (2012). Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58(2), 255-283.

Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2013). The Impact of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Styles on Children’s Later Mental Health in Japan: Focusing on Parent and Child Gender. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 23(2), 293-302.

Weisleder, A., Cates, C., Dreyer, B., Berkule Johnson, S., Huberman, H., & Seery, A. et al. (2016). Promotion of Positive Parenting and Prevention of Socioemotional Disparities. PEDIATRICS, 137(2), e20153239-e20153239.

Whittle, S., Simmons, J., Dennison, M., Vijayakumar, N., Schwartz, O., & Yap, M. et al. (2014). Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 8(1), 7-17.

Zahedani, Z.Z., Rezaee, R., Yazdani, Z., Bagheri, S. & Nabeiei, P. (2016). The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 4(1), 130-134.

Annotated Bibliography

1. Dallaire, D., Pineda, A., Cole, D., Ciesla, J., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., & Bruce, A. (2006). Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms. Journal Of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 313-322.

The article demonstrates that the researchers from the Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University attempt to report the research work for finding out how the depressive symptoms of the children are influenced by both positive and negative parenting styles. The sample population consisted of 515 students aged between 7 to 11 years. However, the data was collected from the responses of their parents through self-reporting procedure. The evaluation through structural equation modeling suggested that the whereas there is a negative connection amongst positive parenting and probable depressive symptoms among the children, the negative parenting style was strongly correlated with the potential depressive symptoms among the children. In this regard, it has been recommended that the authoritative or positive parenting style should be adopted and implemented in order to avoid the negative consequences of authoritarian parenting. In the context of the current paper, this article helps in addressing the potential negative consequences of authoritarian parenting as opposed to positive parenting.

2. Kaufmann, D., Gesten, E., Lucia, R., Salcedo, O., Rendina-Gobioff, G., & Gadd, R. (2000). The Relationship Between Parenting Style and Children's Adjustment: The Parents' Perspective. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 9(2), 231-245.

The article reports how the researchers from the University of South Florida, the University of Rochester, and two other established institutes carried out a comprehensive study to find out how socio-emotional balance of a child is impacted by the authoritarian and the authoritative (positive) parenting approaches. The study used reports and responses from the parents as well as the teachers to collect data. The correlation analysis between the two different parenting approaches and the aspect of adjustment suggested that authoritative or positive parenting impacted the children's socio-emotional balance in a positively identified manner whereas the same aspect was negatively influenced by the authoritarian parenting. Moreover, it was also found out that authoritarian parenting predicts mal-adaptation and authoritative parenting makes a child competent. The results clearly stood for the advocacy of positive or authoritative parenting. The research work contributes to the current study in that it helps in comprehending how the socio-emotional development of children is affected by different parenting styles so that better arguments can be developed.

3. McKinney, C., Milone, M., & Renk, K. (2011). Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(4), 463-481.

In this article, the researchers from the Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University thoroughly demonstrated their study on how the different parenting styles influence the emotional balance of a child during the late adolescent periods. The research was conducted on 518 individuals within the age range of 18 to 22 years. Data was collected through self-reporting responses and it was analyzed through the structural equation modeling. The study suggested that whereas authoritative parenting predicts self-esteem in individuals, the authoritarian parenting might lead to depression. However, it was also observed that the emotional balance was determined by parenting approach only in women. Therefore, gender plays a huge role in determining the outcomes of a particular child-rearing strategy. If the aspect of gender is considered but not emphasized and if the results are contrasted with similar types of other studies, the article helps in deciding the impact of parenting approaches on the emotional balance of individuals during late adolescence. Thus, it assists in formulating the arguments more comprehensively.

4. Mensah, M., & Kuranchie, A. (2013). Influence of Parenting Styles on the Social Development of Children. Academic Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 123-130.

The authors of this article are from the Faculty of Education, Catholic University College of Ghana. The researchers conducted a study on 480 primary school students to find out how the parenting styles affect a child's social development. The information was collected through interview sessions and questionnaires. After assessing the data through SPSS software, it was derived that while the authoritative child-rearing approach leads to pro-social conducts in children, the authoritarian strategy might result in anti-social conducts. The findings suggest that the parents need to adopt and implement the positive or authoritative style in order to ensure healthy social advancement of their children. However, the study also disclosed that most of the observed parents had a preference for adopting the authoritative approach. This article helps in discovering the positive and the negative aspects of different parenting styles that are under scrutiny in the current paper.

5. Phares, V., Fields, S., & Kamboukos, D. (2008). Fathers’ and Mothers’ Involvement with Their Adolescents. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 18(1), 1-9.

The researchers from the Department of Psychology, University of South Florida explored how the role of fathers and mothers as well as their adopted parenting approaches influenced the development of the children and various behavioral aspects. The study was based on information gathered through self-reporting of the adolescents. After assessing the data, it was found out that the adolescents expressed considerable satisfaction toward the parenting of both fathers and mothers. However, it was observed that the father's parenting was engaged more closely with the children's activities while the mothers' parenting was closely related to the daily care. The study inferred that the roles of the parents and their parenting styles have huge impact on the development of children and they determine the consequent behavioral advancement. Thus, the research work helps in addressing how the parenting styles affect a child and what possible approach can be developed to diminish negative outcomes.

6. Schofield, T., Conger, R., Donnellan, M., Jochem, R., Widaman, K., & Conger, K. (2012). Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58(2), 255-283.

The scholars from the University of California-Davis carried out a research work to investigate how the positive parenting style and its inherent features influence the behavioral characteristics and traits of the children. The study was conducted on the parents of 451 white children. The results of the suggested that the characteristics of the parents and their adopted parenting approach is positively correlated with the 12th graders. It was also noticed that the personal traits of the adolescents are also positively influenced by the features of positive parenting. The outcomes infer that positive parenting helps in developing healthy behavioral characteristics and personal traits in the children and adolescents. The researchers also suggest that the impacts might last throughout the life course of the individuals. The findings of the study is immensely important as it would help in comparing the impact of positive parenting with the influence of authoritarian parenting (observed in other studies) so that the discussion becomes more viable.

7. Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2013). The Impact of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Styles on Children’s Later Mental Health in Japan: Focusing on Parent and Child Gender. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 23(2), 293-302.

The researchers from Kumamoto University Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kobe Shoin Women’s University, and two other healthcare institutions of Japan conducted a study to find out the influence of diverse sorts of parenting styles on the mental health of children during later development stages. The study was conducted on 1320 Japanese people who reported their parenting features or expressed their mental status. The results of the study suggested that while the authoritarian child-rearing approach had an extremely bad impact on the mental status of their children, the authoritative or positive approach resulted in beneficial or positive outcomes in a long-term manner. The impacts or influences did not rely on the aspect of gender. Thus, this study is significant in comparing the long-term impacts of different parenting strategies not only during the childhood stages but also in the later periods.

8. Weisleder, A., Cates, C., Dreyer, B., Berkule Johnson, S., Huberman, H., & Seery, A. et al. (2016). Promotion of Positive Parenting and Prevention of Socioemotional Disparities. PEDIATRICS, 137(2), e20153239-e20153239.

The researchers from the New York University (NYU) and the NYU Langone Medical Center conducted a study to discover the impacts of positive parenting approach on the socio-emotional development of the children. The random control trial was conducted on 463 children with the use of Video Interaction Projects (VIP) for gathering scores to generate outcomes. The results of the research work suggest that the intervention of VIP in positive parenting enhances the positively identified impacts of the parenting approach. It was also observed that the children having access to the VIP through positive parenting administration demonstrated better socio-emotional status than others. Thus, the findings would be viable in addressing the constructive outcomes of the positive parenting and it will also help in discussing how various intervention methods can be utilized to enhance the results.

9. Whittle, S., Simmons, J., Dennison, M., Vijayakumar, N., Schwartz, O., & Yap, M. et al. (2014). Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 8(1), 7-17.

The researchers from six established health-research and university institutes from the states of Victoria and Oregon carried out a comprehensive research on how the positive parenting approach and associated environmental factors influence a child's brain development. The study assessed the metal health and brain development status of 188 adolescent individuals through the use of longitudinal structural MRI. However, it should be noted that the concentration was only on the maternal parenting. It was found out that positive parenting and related interaction with the children helped in accelerating the development of brain. The results were more comprehensive in the male individuals. The findings of the study help in assessing the importance of adopting the positive parenting style as it influences faster brain development and better mental status. Thus, the impacts of positive parenting will be compared and contrasted with the effects of authoritarian parenting as have been observed by different studies.

10. Zahedani, Z.Z., Rezaee, R., Yazdani, Z., Bagheri, S. & Nabeiei, P. (2016). The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 4(1), 130-134.

The researchers from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and  Islamic Azad University of Iran studied how an individual's academic performance and the subsequent career of the individuals might be determined by the parenting style under which he or she was brought up. The research involved 310 university students. After gathering data through two questionnaires, the responses were analyzed through Pearson correlation test. It has been found out that the authoritarian or positive parenting approach might determine positive and better academic performance as well as career development. On the other hand, the study has also observed that the authoritative or firm parenting approach might prove to be detrimental to the educational achievement and a considerable career path for the individuals. Thus, the findings suggest how the different parenting styles influences the academic success of people. In this manner, the article would be helpful in developing the argumentative discussion exploring the impacts of diverse child-rearing strategies.

August 09, 2021

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