The eating disorder

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The eating disorder has been linked to some incidents that regularly occur among individuals in various communities and nations, including binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, among other eating disorders that researchers have identified over the years. The study was conducted with the goal of gaining an awareness of how the problems have affected society, which also aids in ensuring that strict measures to limit the risks linked with eating disorders have been implemented.  It has been evident that the public health sector has improved its operations after various studies related to the topic being published, which has also assisted in the creation of awareness among individuals on how they should handle their issues as they are experienced in the communities. The study aims at developing a review on diagnosis, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. It will also develop an analysis on the strengths and limitations of the book, the lesson that have been learned and why the book should be recommended to other students and has been based on the book The Wiley Handbook of Eating Disorders by Linda Smolak and Michael P. Levine.


Anorexia nervosa (AN), which is one of the incidences of the eating disorders, has been explained as a complex syndrome by the authors. It is commonly characterized by cognitive, behavioral and physical criteria that are associated with psychiatric and medical mobility in an individual's system. Despite the fact that there are increased cases of the problem among adults and the youths, it is evident that it normally offsets during adolescence. The eating disorder is explained by the use of diverse illustrations, and the most specific ones include disturbance in body image, persistent engagement and low body weight (Berg, Peterson, Frazier & Crow, 2012).

In most instances, scientists have proved that eating disorders lead to a condition where an individual finds it difficult to eat properly, thus resulting in low body weight. The loss of weight has been considered a major incident among individuals with AN among other incidents of eating disorder. There is a criterion that has been developed and implemented to ensure that the diagnosis of the disease has been carried out effectively. The process is commonly stated as the DSM-5 and can be applied when evaluating the clinical judgment that has been initiated during the medical process (Birgegard, Norring & Clinton, 2012).

The authors illustrate the notion that the weight of an individual is compared with the average BMI index that has been noted over the years to be of individuals with the same age range. However, for patients who are considered to be young, the criteria applied is different from what has always been used for other patients based on the notion that they might not experience weight loss but instead gain, which is attained when an individual is at their developmental window. The diagnosis process has also been ascertained to entail analysis of previous works that have been developed by researchers, which provides adequate information to compare with what has been collected from the field. According to researchers, it is evident that the incidence rates obtained from scholarly materials are essential in determining whether the illness being diagnosed is becoming a common problem in diverse societies in a nation (Hebebrand & Bulik, 2011).

Medical practitioners often ask patients various questions related to the disease including when and how it started so as to ascertain the rate at which it might have been spread among other persons in the population. There are other approaches that can also be applied to diagnosis and have been understood to include data collection through diverse diagnostic algorithms. Research illustrates the notion that diagnostic algorithms are the best strategies that can be applied to ensure proper facilitation of medication and handling of patients with the eating disorder problems including AN (Eddy, et. al., 2010).

A study carried out among women in America has been used as the basis of adequate information to assist in implementing new processes in the healthcare industries across the globe relating to the eating disorder issues. Despite the notion that trained persons can handle the problems arising in the hospitals, it is evident that the statistical manual for diagnosis that was developed by scholars has been used as an effective tool in managing diverse situations. The diagnostic process has helped in making certain that there are no cases where patients are asked lots of questions that they can be difficult for them to answer in most instances (Kreipe & Palomaki, 2012).

It is essential that various diagnostic tools be adopted in the medical sectors across the globe to assist in reducing the eating disorder problems. Over the years, the diagnosis has been used in developing lessons that can be used in the creation of awareness among individuals from diverse communities across the globe. The process has been significant as there have been reduced prevalence cases among diverse cultures in diverse communities.

Risk Factors

There are various risk factors that have been highlighted across the 20th century, and they include age and gender. In most instances, researchers have explained that eating disorders are mostly experienced among women, especially at their adolescent stage. AN incidences have been explained to have been increasing among various communities over the years. Researchers reported that incidences during the 1970s were stabilized, which has also been supported by other scholars who have developed recent studies (Hague, 2010). However, there are increased rates of AN incidence among the adolescent women even after the situation has been stabilized. Therefore, the age range is a common risk factor that has been taken into consideration by scholars.

The risk factors include age, which has been explained by scholars to be the peak risk in adolescents. According to the research that was carried out, it was stated that “Incidence rates estimated from review of medical records increased from 56.4 to 109.2 per 100,000 person years in The Netherlands for adolescent females aged 15–19 years and increased linearly from 1935 to 1989 in adolescent and young adult women aged 15–25 years in the United States” (Krabbenborg, et. al., 2012). Therefore, it is evident that the increased rates of eating disorders among the adolescent are increasing at an alarming rate and stern measures should be taken into consideration.

The other risk factor is based on the notion that women can develop a binge-eating episode that is uncontrollable and sometimes alters the normal weight of individuals. In most instances, medical practitioners compare the weight of an individual with the normal expected weight of the same age range persons, so as to understand if they have been affected by eating disorders before taking any medication into consideration. The process is very essential in making certain that proper measures have been put in place and that less number of errors are encountered when handling individuals suffering from eating disorders in diverse societies (Rosen, 2010).

In the book, it is evident that the cultural values and practices are the other risk factor that has been related to the eating disorders in most communities internationally. Despite the notion that improved measures have been developed by medical practitioners, it is evident that there are some cultural practices that require individuals to develop an eating habit as they consume certain food types. The problems related to the eating disorders connected to cultural practices have been an issue of immense concern since they can be difficult to handle and cause more complications on how activities are carried out by the medical practitioners (Weaver & Liebman, 2011).

The government administrators and medical practitioners should develop some strategies to ensure that cultural practices in various communities have been promoted, but the creation of awareness have been implemented to reduce the impact of the eating disorders on individuals. The process will assist in building a healthy society and nation, which can improve how operations are carried out in the international market (Tanofsky et. al., 2011).

Development of a clear understanding of the risk factors associated with the eating disorders is essential in making certain that medical practitioners can introduce new strategies to assist in solving the various issues. The risk factors have been ascertained to be related to the growth processes of individuals, and especially women at their adolescent age, which has been an increasing concern. There are diverse measures that have been provided by the author, which have been developed by government administrators to ensure that there are reduced negative impacts caused by eating disorders in diverse communities across the globe. The process has been essential in facilitating effectiveness in how operations are undertaken in the health care centers and how individuals carry out their eating habits (Eddy, et. al., 2010).


The eating disorders have been explained by the authors to create an immense impact on various activities undertaken by individuals across the globe. In the current century, evidence indicated that prevention of the eating disorders should be taken as a priority other than having to wait for a cure. In most instances, there are some strategies that have been developed by medical practitioners to ensure that there is the prevention of the problem, and this can be attained by the creation of awareness (Túry, Gülec & Kohls, 2010).

Urbanization has been explained by the authors one of the outcomes of binge eating and eating disorders that have been experienced by individuals in various nations across the globe. The process has also led to an increased rate of access to readily edible and large quantities of food, which also affects the prevalence of EDs and AN. In the western culture, there are some practices that have been incorporated and have been ascertained to be characterized by an idealization of various cultural and traditional practices. The ever changing trends have led to increased changes in the eating habits that have increased the eating disorders among persons. Therefore, the binge eating habits should not be promoted in the society, and this can also be attained successfully by developing measures to assist individuals to understand its impact on their body systems (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Special care on individuals who have been affected should also be developed by medical practitioners. However, it is essential to ensure that prevention measures are implemented especially in communities that are commonly affected by the eating disorders. It is evident that increased persons who are affected can be from peer pressure, and this mostly affects the youths. Therefore, training programs can be introduced among the youths to ensure that they have been provided with a plan to ensure that there are reduced negative impacts on the society (Crow, et. al., 2012).

The authors illustrate the notion that women at their development stage, including the adolescent stage, tend to have a habit of eating disorders, which affects their health. Despite the notion that an individual may be increasing or reducing their weight, proper considerations should be applied when checking if they have been affected by the eating disorders. Among women, there should be educational programs that are aimed at explaining the impact of various stages and hormones in their body systems, which will help in improving how they balance their diet to prevent cases of eating disorders in the society. The process will also be effective in ensuring that there are no or reduced cases of eating disorders among youths and women who are at their adolescent stage (Gueguen., et. al., 2012).

Prevention programs should also include providing some medication to individuals once in a while by the medical professionals, which will assist in managing their conditions and eating habits. There are some medications that can assist in standardizing the hormonal imbalances that can lead to an individual developing the eating disorders (Hudson, et. al., 2012). Despite the fact that there are some cultural values that restrict individuals from taking such medications, individuals should be helped to understand the significance of the eating habits their bodies and societies and the process can also be applied by urging the youths to train and convince the elderly in their communities. The prevention process can then be attained successfully and various problems experienced in the society reduced. Building a healthy society requires that improved measures of operation and prevention of disorders are increased at all cost. The eating disorders including AN have negative impacts on the society, and its prevention will improve the health of persons as well as various operations were undertaken in diverse industries, thus affecting the global market positively. The process will then be essential in the development and growth of the nation (Keel, Brown, Holm-Denoma & Bodell, 2011).


Complexities and severity, as explained by the authors of the book, have been ascertained to be some of the characteristics of the eating disorder conditions and require proper medical attention for all individuals. There are some strategies that have been developed by medical practitioners to ensure that a professional and comprehensive treatment program has been implemented successfully (Smolak & Levine, 2015). Despite the notion that there are some barriers to the success of operations carried out by medical practitioners including cultural values and traditional practices, the government administrators are also trying to ensure that the programs have been supported (NIMH, 2011).

Eating disorders have designed treatments patterns that comprise of various segments developed by therapists, nutritionists, and medical doctors. The segments include medication, therapy, nutrition as well as monitoring and medical care. The segments have been ascertained to be effective in handling various cases of eating disorders among patients regardless of the backgrounds, eating habits and cultural practices (Swanson, 2011).

There are various types of treatments that have been provided by the authors, which have been given to individuals who have the eating disorder including An. The treatment types are normally therapies aimed at improving the health of an individual and they include family therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), interpersonal psychotherapy (ITP) and dance movement therapy among others. The procedures have been developed by medical practitioners with an aim of making certain that all cases of eating disorders have been handled quickly as they affect an increased number of persons in the current generation. Researchers explain that the eating disorder severity, as well as other co-occurring health problems, can be used in determining the proper medication practices to be implemented (Ornstein, et. al., 2013). In such instances, the health care professionals take their time to ensure that outpatients have been examined to determine the level of treatment and care that should be provided and proved significant for their conditions (Thomas, Hartmann & Killgore, 2013).

The levels of treatment of patients with eating disorders include the intensive outpatient treatment, which has been developed and designed for both women and men. The patients in this stage are explained to require lots of attention and support, which should be provided by the medical professionals in various health care centers across the globe (Keel, Brown, Holland & Bodell, 2012). There are diverse programs that have been developed to ensure that the doctors can get to see their patients at least two to five times in a week. The program has been proved significant and has assisted in improving the health condition of an increased number of persons. The treatment options that are provided in this level of treatment include the personalized nutrition consultation, family support, and topic-focused groups as well as the individualized therapy (Romanos, et. al., 2012).

The other level explained in the book is the outpatient treatment and is explained as the level that is least restrictive in its activities. In this level, the patients who have been affected will be expected to see a therapist, nutritionist or professional personnel for at least two to three times in a week. The process will assist in making certain that all persons including those who are working as well as those in schools have been attended without any discrimination (Wildes & Marcus, 2010).

The inpatient treatment eating disorder is another level that has been developed with an aim of attaining the primary needs of individuals in various communities. The treatment level offers a continued care program and entails interruption and medical stabilization of weight loss in an individual’s body systems. The program implemented in the inpatient treatment takes approximately three weeks and the individual can be considered to have attained a stable medical condition (Forbush, et. al., 2013). After discharge from the health facility, the patient is provided with a continuing care program that assists in making certain that their condition is maintained despite the fact that they are not around the hospital.

Strengths of the Book

The book provides adequate data and information about the eating disorders, which can be used by individuals to develop a better understanding on how they should be carrying out their activities (Kessler, et. al., 2013). Based on the notion that the author has also used other scholars materials, the research findings are relevant and can also be used by other scholars in writing new books for use as a reference in schools. The statistics provided are based on real time data that individuals can associate with them, which helps in ensuring that all readers can relate to various circumstances provided (Sysko, et. al., 2012). There are diverse illustrations that have been provided in the book, which can also be used by medical professionals in determining the best practices that can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the eating disorders. Therefore, it is evident that the book has adequate information that can also be used to improve operations carried out in diverse health care centers across the globe (Berg, et. al., 2011).

Limitations of the Book

The limitations of the book include the notion that the data has been restricted to western communities, which should not have been the case. Various data and information should have been collected from other nations to ensure that comparisons carried out are relevant and reliable.

Lessons Learnt

The various lessons learned from the book include how to carry out diagnosis of eating disorders including AN, which can be undertaken by an individual who has internalized the processes and information provided. The risk factors that have also been illustrated by the author are significant and have helped in ensuring that there is the development of an understanding of various factors that lead to eating disorders. The information helps in making certain that an individual takes into consideration measures that will assist in reducing the impact of eating disorders in the community. The age factor, for instance, helps in reducing doubts that can be developed by an individual when they start encountering diverse changes in their body system growth and development. The impact of cultural practices and values also help in creating awareness among individuals from various communities and what they need to know about the impact of culture on their eating habits. The information also helps in ensuring that there is a clear understanding on what should be adopted from other nations to reduce the impact of eating disorders in the society.

Significance of the Book for Recommendation

I would recommend the book to other students because it assists in making certain that there is a clear understanding of eating disorders and their incidences. The concept will assist in ensuring that there are reduced cases of eating disorders that are associated with what has been learned from the book. It will also make certain that there is the creation of awareness among individuals from various communities on how to handle problems associated with eating disorders in the society. The prevention and treatment directions provided by the author also helps in guaranteeing that proper measures have been taken into consideration whenever an individual is found to be suffering from any incidence of eating disorders including AN (Grilo, Masheb & White, 2010).

The book can also be used as a reference material by other scholars and students in diverse institutions of learning based on the fact that there are illustrations provided with reliable statistics from previous research by other publishers. It can also be used as a teaching aid to guide students on issues related to eating disorders, the remedies that should be taken into consideration, prevention measures as well as treatment that should be expected when one has to see a medical profession, therapist or a nutritionist.

The diagnosis procedures that have been provided in the book are essential and can be used especially by women who have developed fears about their weight gain or loss over the years. The book also provides an insight into the age ranges where eating disorders can be experienced and that fears should be reduced among individuals. The insight is essential in providing relevant information to medical practitioners, which can also be used when creating awareness in diverse communities.


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April 26, 2023



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