The Case of Paul

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Romanelli, M. & Hudson, K. D. (2017). Individual and systemic barriers to health care:

Perspectives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(6), 714-728. doi: 10.1037/ort0000306.

Romanelli M. is a Ph.D. graduate and a certified researcher who has published four research items in New York University (NYU). He is also a professor in NYU with interests in socioeconomic status, gender, sexuality, and race. The duo's article makes an in-depth study of the many barriers in the form of mental health that the LGBTs face. The article tries to explain the extent to which the LGBTs face seclusion in the society. The piece is essential in defining the possible barriers that Paul might be facing as an LGBT. The research was done through an interview of over forty LGBTs. Paul is in the same category, so the article serves well in analyzing his plight as an LGBT. The report supports the article by Miville, ML., and Ferguson, AD as the article both talk of the sufferings that the LGBTs undergo in the society because of lack of understanding and support from the people.

Ferguson, AD. & Miville ML. (2017). It’s Complicated: Navigating Multiple Identities in Small

Town America. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73(8), 975-984.

doi: 10.1002/jclp.22507.

Both the two writers are professors at the University of Columbia. Miville ML is a Licensed Psychologist with a doctorate in Counseling Psychology. Ferguson AD is also a psychological analyst. Their research has much focus on the identity crisis that the LGBTs, especially the White LGBTs, face due to societal seclusion. The study discusses the unfair treatment of the LGBTs due to the insufficient knowledge of the nurses. It gives guidelines to the nurses on how to handle the LGBTs more comfortably. The article can be useful in discussing the case of Paul and his identity navigation in the society due to the lack of adequate knowledge by the society concerning the LGBTs leading to their oppression. The journal relates to the journal by Bidell, M. P which focuses on the skills development by the nurses to handle the LGBTs as it also gives the nurses guidelines on how best to manage the LGBTs.

Gonzales, G. & Henning-Smith, C. (2017). Health Disparities by Sexual Orientation: Results and Implications from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Journal of Community Health, 42(6), 1163-1172. doi: 10.1007/s10900-017-0366-z.


The article is an examination of the sexual orientation disparities and behaviors. It makes use of data from a recent survey in the USA on health outcomes. The study tried to examine the behavioral risks that about eight thousand two hundred and ninety adults involved in the study went through. The article can be useful in discussing the behavioral changes that Paul might undergo due to the condition. The material can also be efficient in discussing the health risks that he might face such as obesity, indulging in smoking, chronic diseases, and heavy drinking. The article is related to the report by Ferguson, AD and Miville used for the same case study as they both highlight the health deficiencies that an LGBT may go through due to the lack of proper systems to handle their situations and the societal discrimination.


Bidell, M. P. (2017). The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Development of Clinical

            Skills Scale (LGBT-DOCSS): Establishing a New Interdisciplinary Self-Assessment for

Health Providers. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(10), 1432-1460. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2017.1321389

The research carried out by Bidell, M.P analyzes the possibility for development for the LGBTs. The study used participants from the USA and the UK. The participants included counselors, psychotherapists, clinicians, and trainees. The investigation revealed the possibility of development for the LGBTs. The study can be used in Paul's Case to explain ways in which he may develop regardless of his social status. According to the survey, there is a considerable possibility of development on his side but also recognizes that in a struggle to develop himself he will face various limitations.  The research relates to the article used in considering Paul's Case by William K, Stinchcombe, A., and Kortez-Miller, K. as the analysis reveals the hopes that the LGBTs have and that their social condition is not the end of life.

Wilson, K., Stinchcombe, A. & Kortez-Miiler, K. (2018). Staying Out of the Closet: LGBT

Older Adults’ Hopes and Fears in Considering End-of-Life. Canadian Journal on Aging, 37(1), 22-31. doi: 10.1017/S0714980817000514.

The article takes a more in-depth look at the lives of the LGBT as they age and their end life. The study uses focus groups to help examine if there is hope of the LGBTs to live happily without giving up in life. It helps to determine they can withstand identity crisis and, therefore, have a stable identity throughout life. It makes consideration of sexual orientation at end-of-life. The article can help in explaining whether Paul still has a chance in life and thus bringing sense to the fact that there I no need for him to make an end to his life. The study relates to the research by Bidell M.P. as they used in Paul's Case as they both indicate a new light and the need not to despair for the LGBTs.

December 12, 2023
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