The Roy’s Adaptation Model, also known as (RAM)

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The Roy's Adaptation Model, abbreviated as (RAM), is a widely used nursing model designed by Prof. Callista Roy for the aim of education and practice in nursing. It is clear that the nursing profession focuses on personal and environmental transformation as well as improving adaptive qualities. As a result, its use of RAM in its activities will enable nursing practice to develop research models that will be employed in studying human adaptation, so improving appropriate health and quality of life (Beckerman, 2004). The adaptation model is an important tool in the nursing practice, and its main aim of understanding the dimensions of a person’s life also collaborates with the nursing practice.

Analysis of the Model

The core Assumption of RAM

The Roy’s Adaptation Model operates through a system of guiding assumptions. One of the assumptions is that a person has four modes of adaptations, which include the self-concept, physiologic needs, role function, and interdependence (Roy, 2011) “The second assumption is that a person could also be referred to as a bio-psycho-social being.” This means that the life of a person is in constant interaction with the diversified environment. The third assumption of Roy’s model is that a person must be able to adapt fully to the environmental changes for him/her to respond to the changes that may occur. This assumption calls for the flexibility of human beings to be responsive to the minor and major changes to the environment (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005). The fourth assumption is the person must use both acquired and innate mechanisms to enable the person to adapt to the changing world.

The Philosophical assumptions of RAM

Despite the core assumption of Roy’s model, other philosophical assumptions must apply for the model to be effective. First, the person must have an existing and mutual relationship between God and the world. Secondly, people are deemed to be accountable for the transformation and sustaining they life they live through their activities. Thirdly, the persons possess creative abilities such enlightenment, faith and the aspect of awareness, which are sourced from God and nature (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005).

Major concepts of the Model

The Roy’s Adaptation Model is based on five guiding concepts, and the first concept is the adaptation. The concept of adaptation indicates that the nursing profession incorporates a major goal of adaptation with the changing environment (Beckerman, 2004). The second concept is the person, who is the bio-psycho being with the ability to use mechanisms to adapt to the environment. The third concept is the environment, which is referred to as the residual factor that provides the changing conditions for human beings. The fourth concept is the health, which is a particular dimension towards the life of human beings. The fifth concept is nursing, which has been referred to as the facilitator of the adaptation of human beings.


In summary, the Roy’s Adaptation Model analyses the nursing process as the main facilitator of promoting adaptation responses in factors such as illness and health with the aim of promoting good health for human beings. In his model, Roy highlights the main priority of human beings to be their survival, their growth, reproduction, social integration, and understanding themselves better. Therefore, the nursing profession has been used a platform to conduct the human study and their adaptation to the environment (Beckerman, 2004). Through nursing, it is possible to analyze the capacity and the essential needs of human beings for their survival in the changing environment.


Beckerman, A. (2004). The impact of Roy's model of adaptation on nursing students' generation of patient data: A comparison study.

Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Whall, A. L. (2005). Conceptual models of nursing: Analysis and application of Roy's Adaptation model. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy Adaptation Model to Meet Changing Global Needs. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(4), 345-351. doi:10.1177/0894318411419210

May 10, 2023

Learning Economy

Subject area:

Nurse Study Employment

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