The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)

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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) with the goal of tackling the common causes of poor life quality, disability, and death in postmenopausal women (Tharpe & Jordan, 2013). Yet, the group addressed major female ailments such as osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. The WHI study focused on the causes of diseases, control methods for the conditions, and techniques to developing healthy behaviors. As a result, this essay will discuss cancer in women as well as current best practices for assessing and managing this condition. Besides, the article will give differences on best practices presented by WHI study to the current best practices as well as the impacts of the practices to the woman’s health.

However, osteoporosis is the main health problem in the United States affecting approximately more than 11 million adults. However, the research carried out to reveal that the annual fracture incidence, as well as the costs, are anticipated to rise by approximately 51% by 2025.Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by the fracturing of bones as well as the bones becoming less dense. However, person's bones lose strength and density as they grow older. For instance, bones are hard since they are made of minerals such as calcium. Also, Osteoporosis disease causes the bones weak and porous. Individuals diagnosed with Osteoporosis are at higher risk of fracturing some of the bones such as the wrist, upper arm, spine, pelvis as well as hip bones (Tharpe & Jordan, 2013). Also, this disease can be caused by other factors such as an individual having a family history of the disease, inadequate calcium in the body, too much smoking as well as excessive use of alcohol.

Besides, the best practices for assessing this disorder is through diagnosing and screening the prevalence of the disease by use of bone mineral density (BMD), Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), vertebral breaking assessment, quantitative ultrasound densitometry as well as computed tomography. However, BMD and DXA are the most widely used in assessing the disorder since they are comparatively cheap and have a little radiation exposure compared to the other methods. Regular screening for the disease plays a vital role in facilitating treatment before the fracture occurs. BMD measurement approximates the bone strength in a person, and therefore, the health officer can determine the prevalence of the disease. However, DXA has widely validated technique used to measure bone mineral density. Besides, strategies have been laid down to manage this disorder (Goldman & Rexrode, 2013). Individuals diagnosed with this disease are encouraged to exercise regularly to prevent bone loss, eat foods rich in vitamin D and calcium, limit alcohol intake as well as avoiding smoking.

Consequently, the practices presented by WHI study were impressive and they measured the trial of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The study revealed that individuals who used HRT to treat the disorder experienced a reduction prevalence of the disease (Brody & Semel, 2006). However, the information on HRT was inaccurate because of artifacts characterized in the epidemiologic studies. However, HRT is the little therapy for genital atrophy as well as vasomotor symptoms in menopausal females and therefore it is a major problem for women’s with severe symptoms. Consequently, current practices on assessing this disorder have a small impact on individuals since the methods are non-invasive in nature, take a short time, cost effective as well as they have low radiation exposure. The current practices are highly based on X-rays which has an adverse impact on women's health in long term period.

In brief, I think the current best practices in assessing and managing cancer or osteoporosis should be used in clinical practice. For instance, screening for the disorder by use of DXA has a little adverse impact on the health of females since it takes a short time to perform the test and therefore little exposure to the radiations. Regarding managing the disorder, the current practices should be highly adopted since they reduce the predominance of osteoporosis significantly. In the same token, regular exercising, avoidance of excessive smoking and alcohol intake should be emphasized. In conclusion, the elderly females should regularly go for screenings to prevent the occurrence of the order. From the research, individuals who attend regular screening have been in a position to treat and make precautionary practices hence preventing the occurrence of the disease.


Brody, C. M., & Semel, V. G. (2006). Strategies for therapy with the elderly: Living with hope and meaning. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, & National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (n.d). Women’s Health Initiative: WHI background and overview. Retrieved on March, 20 2013, from

Goldman, M. B., Troisi, R., & Rexrode, K. M. (2013). Women and health. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press

Tharpe, N. L., Farley, C., & Jordan, R. G. (2013). Clinical practice Guidelines for Midwifery & Women's health (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers



May 10, 2023

Health Sociology


Human Body Illness Identity

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