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There are various categories of case studies as well as distinct subjects addressed across multiple case studies. Each type of studies differs from the other regarding the hypothesis or the thesis that is to be proved. However, case studies tend to have incidences that overlap each other. The different types of case studies can be applied to various disciplines such as psychology, arts, business or philosophy among others. The first type is the explanation, which concentrates on giving an elaborate description of a question concerning a particular phenomenon (Neuman, 2013, p.67). A case study that is done with a group of people or an individual cannot be termed as an explanatory type of case study. Primarily, it is because it contains a variable, which cannot be explained, and if explained, will lead to unreliable results.

Nevertheless, case studies concerning events can be explanatory. For instance, if a certain lorry is unable to function due to multiple crashes caused by faulty brakes, the researcher will develop an issue by explaining the crash and the detailed causes of the failure. Actions that could have led to the inability of breaks will be investigated as well as the preventive measures that could have been taken to avoid the occurrence of the incidence. Another company would use this case as a way of finding out more causes of breaks failure. The second type of case study is the exploratory type, which precedes a large-scale research project by justifying the need for further investigation of a particular phenomenon (Smith, 2015, p.89). For instance, research was done on veterans arriving home from combat, whereby the researcher knows very well that they have PTSD as well as the actions that caused them but is not aware whether PTSD may be caused by specific wartime activities.

The third type is the collective case study, which utilizes information from various studies to come up with a new case study. Past studies allow additional details without much wastage of money and time on it. Intrinsic type is the third, which involves a particular subject as the primary interest. For instance, Genie describes her experiences and how they shaped her in her book other than dwelling on psychology. The last type is instrumental whereby a case is utilized to acquire insight about a particular phenomenon. For instance, a researcher may use young children and exercise to find the relationship between exercise and obesity. In this case, Ames and her colleagues (2009) have utilized the instrumental method of study whereby she talks about describing the rates of drinking patterns as well as the problems in the population of research and the environmental and cultural elements of the navy life and using it to forecast changes. Researchers work together using a defined conceptual framework, which is controlled by concepts, methodologies, and theories that are obtained from different disciplines (Taylor et al., 2015, p.145). The research draws various approaches from social psychology and uses them as instruments for their research.

Question 1 B

Triangulation is defined as the combination of methodologies used in a particular study of the same phenomenon. The concept of triangulation originated from Campbell who came up with the idea of multi-operationism arguing that a research process should utilize more than one method to make sure that the variance reflected the one in the trait but not the technique. Integrating and blending different methods and data according to the concept of triangulation involves both simple and intricate designs, which makes the quantity of the qualitative measures to be simple at the end of the research (Wilson, 2008, p.675). Considering that the principal investigator was a qualitative researcher, there was a mitigation of power imbalances between qualitative and quantitative research, and therefore both forms of collecting data received equal attention throughout the study. In the initial stage of the survey, pilot qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants who acquired unique insights into the Navy policy, rituals and labour practices, which may be contributing to the drinking behaviour.

The primary objective of the interviews was to have an overview of the characteristics and dimensions of alcohol use in the navy to unveil relevant themes as well as vocabulary at the workplace concerning the life of the navy. They also helped in obtaining information concerning military work related to alcohol use that would be used in the entire study. The material obtained from these interviews were used in the qualitative interview guide, the model as well as the survey design, therefore, containing the integration mode of the study. For example, it was noted that call ports were significant sites where problematic drinking of sailors was severe. Further, the interviews revealed a rich vocabulary, which pertained to both times spent outside the home port and the effects of problematic drinking (Bryman and Bell, 2015, p.236). Lastly, the key informant interviews were utilized to come up with a heuristic study method whereby the initial concept of the study was obtained from a generic model formulated by the research team in other reviews on the impact of psychosocial factors, workplace setting and professional norms on the drinking patterns of workers.

Considering the uniqueness of the navy as a labour site, the research team felt it essential to modify the model to gain a better occupational setting. For instance, from the interviews, it is clear that even though drinking at the workplace is rare, heavy drinking, in this case, is evident as associated to leisure activities (Bryman 2016, p.138). Since the navy has to regulate work and leisure, the model was changed to show the unique relationship that exists between work and leisure. Despite conducting the qualitative and survey data collection in tandem, another survey data collection was done approximately one year before concluding the qualitative data collection. As a result of this, they established a specific integration node during research whereby the results obtained from both surveys were used as a conclusion. Mainly, the results from the preliminary survey data were used in the contextualization of these findings as well as the establishment of new inquiry lines, which were based on the outcomes.

Question 2A

A narrative’s source main objective is to provide a critical and exhaustive survey of all the sources of narratives that come from medieval countries. The database is used to keep an inventory of all the texts, which give an elaborate past in the form of a description such as diaries, chronicles, poems, and letters. For every source, there are pieces of information, which must be included. That is the type of language used, identification number, type of the narrative, biological information of the author, century and region of publishing, abstract, context and translations.

Moreover, historical sources provide the possibility to reconstruct the context in the manuscript in such a way that separate information, which is classified as an authentic source has been transmitted (Zikmund et al., 2013, p.385). Narrative sources are published on the internet as work in progress, which means it is a continuous process, and, therefore, data can be added to the existing data at any moment. Sally discussed various types of historical sources such as natural social exchanges and organizational documentation. Humphrey and Brown in their article utilize the corporate documentation. Discourse recognition as a means, by which organizations can come up with a coherent social reality to frame their identity has raised the interest in approaches to narratives in organizations.

A narrative in this context is defined as coherent, specific and creative world descriptions of the world, which are written by participants drawing the locally available resources (Saunders et al., 2009, p.66). The narrative perspective that has been applied in this case views organizations as socially constructed phenomena, which are kept alive by political, symbolic and social processes. To most individuals and organizations, they are generally the narratives that are concocted by people, they dispute, share and retell in ways that still maintain the objectivity of the message. Social processes, from which an organization occurs essentially include the dialogical narrative exchange so that the work of researchers is to analyse the outcome sufficiently. Humphrey and Brown in their standpoint exhibit three essential aspects (Sekaran and Bougie, 2016, p.98). One of them is the issue of sense-making whereby, the interpretation processes and production meaning, where people reflect and analyse a particular phenomenon to produce intersubjective accounts thus achieving massively through narrative.

The present human species is predisposed to reason in narratives. Secondly, collective and individual identities are written in the discursive periods and are available to people in the form of narratives for the organization and self-benefits. According to the authors, the primary interest is based on the dynamic, consonant, and multiple and competing or sometimes overlapping descriptions, which give participants a chance to express their opinions about their organization (Benard, 2017, p.305). The third aspect and most crucial is that it is recognized through a narrative approach where the organisation is the standard medium of power and control. Further, that analysing the linguistic practices is vital in gaining an understanding of the reproduction and transformation process of the current strength and social relations.

Question2 B

Humphrey and Brown main objective of the study is to prove the heteroglossia, which signifies the organisational life, the speech practices that comprise struggles between divergent and convergent thinking. Specifically, the case highlights the substantive challenges of meaning that are faced by regulatory employees with notions of CSR. The study also casts a possible solution of the practical difficulties that are related to broad conceptions of corporate social responsibility related to the essence of business in the society and concentrate on moral obligations that increase the impact of the organization (Fowler, 2013, p.139). The generic conceptualisations, which have no precision or little guidance may lead to confusion, cynicism, and resistance in organisations. According to the findings in this article, the results are consonant with the research, which show that even though corporate social responsibility has increasingly raised salient concern for business and governments all over the world, there is still substantial content or process of decision making.

The two authors have adopted the organisational narrative approach, which has enhanced in analysing the regulatory processes with the aim of exploring the way, in which individuals in a particular organisation have handled with critical issues of corporate social responsibility. Their argument in this article has been based on the emphasis that narratives put on sequence and order making them efficient in analysing the continuous construction of identities (Denscombe, 2008, p.431). The perspective of a narrative also provides access to context as well as its appreciation or particular, characters, relationships or events that bring out sensitivity to specific situational particularities. Moreover, focusing on a narrative allows the researcher to render their attention to the complicated organisational life, which is crucial mainly through elaborate sharing of tales. It is easy to understand the discursive nature of resources as deployed in the exercise of power. They further suggest that when the linguistic turn in the study of the organisation seems to be getting massive attention, a language is located by a narrative approach in the midst of the organising process.

The primary objective of the paper has been to give a detailed case of one of the many contemporary organisations that are seeking ways to achieve and effectively employ notions of corporate social responsibility into their system. According to a prominent financial writer, the aspect of corporate social responsibility has widened through its adoption into various organization management systems (Creswell and Clark, 2017, p.43). Most organisations keep releasing reports on their social corporate responsibility activities, hire personnel as well as come up with processes and policies aimed at proper management of CSR and creation of directorial and managerial duties. Significant growth has been noted in various socially responsible analysts and funds as well as a burgeoning of CSR consultants, membership and vanguard organisations committed to CSR. Further, the number of CSR media is rising daily such as ethical networks and corporations. For managers who are at the senior level, they are more likely to encounter external pressures from regulatory bodies, the government, customers, and internal demands by employees as well as shareholders. The element of CSR is therefore not worth ignoring, but the practical, philanthropic and ethical implications of the same are not defined.


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January 19, 2024

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