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Previously, in Malaysia, a shortage of schooling resulted in unemployment due to a lack of competency. Today, however, the trend has shifted, with graduates in Malaysia experiencing unemployment. This article aims to review and summarize three journals in order to explain why graduates in Malaysia are unemployed.
Omar and Shanmuganathan begin by presenting the problem, noting that the problem of graduates facing unemployment is prevalent in all developed countries today (367). There are two types of unemployment: short-term and long-term. Short term unemployment can be observed whereby the cause of unemployment is attributed to natural causes such as the movement from one job to another. Long term unemployment, on the other hand, exists where, for a variety of reasons, new graduates who have entered the workforce do not get employed. Several reasons can be attributed to the high rate of unemployment among graduates. One challenge is a deficiency in communication skills especially the lack of mastery of the English language, which poses a problem in private and international companies. Another challenge is graduates being too choosy and not seizing existing business opportunities. Further, the lack of graduates emphasis on gaining experience poses a significant problem as employers prefer experienced candidates. A big challenge also lies in the in public education institutions lack of providing industry training that leaves graduates unequipped to face challenges in the industry. Ways to reduce unemployment include; a change of attitude, improving communication skills by learning English, and learning of soft skills among graduates.
Hanapi and Mohd note that there is a problem of unemployment among graduates (1056). The challenge, however, in Malaysia seems largely as a result of the lack of production of graduates that are world class and comprehensive. This means that graduates attributes are largely to blame for their unemployment. Such characteristics include; a lack of technical skills which are crucial when faced with real situations, graduates show a lack of creativity in problem-solving situations, choosiness in the picking of jobs, and a lack of mastery of the English language. Further, a challenge can be observed in the lack of competent lecturers, and the trickle-effect can be observed in the graduates. Solutions to the problems include; a total overhaul of the education system to improve students achievements, Malaysia becoming a high-income nation by restructuring the labor market system, and increasing graduates marketability by improving their skill set.
Shakir goes directly at resolving the issue of graduates unemployment in Malaysia by the adoption of soft skills in institutions of higher learning (Shakir, 309). The introduction begins with an acknowledgment that for Malaysia to be a developed nation, the upgrading and development of human capital is inevitable. The adoption of soft skills in institutions of higher learning is seen as the solution to carve the niche for Malaysian graduates. These soft skills include; excellent communication skills by being fluent both English and Bahasa Malaysia language, graduates having problem-solving skills as well as critical thinking, adoption of information management skills and lifelong learning, instilling entrepreneurship skill and team work among students, and learning leadership, ethics and professional moral skills.
Hanapi, Zaliza, and Mohd Safarin Nordin. "Unemployment among Malaysia graduates: Graduates attributes, lecturers competency and quality of education." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 112 (2014): 1056-1063.
Omar, Che Mohd Zulkifli Che, and Shanmuganathan Rajoo. "Unemployment among graduates in Malaysia." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management (2016): 367-374.
Shakir, Roselina. "Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning." Asia Pacific Education Review 10.3 (2009): 309-315.
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