The Borderline Personality Disorder

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Research investigations have increased our understanding and management of borderline personality disorders. Suicidal thoughts, functional deficits, depression, and emotional instability are some of its symptoms. It results in substantial societal treatment expenses. The major causes of this illness are genetics and severe life events such as abuse. Psychotherapy appears to be the primary treatment option for common symptoms. More research on the condition's diagnosis, risk factors, and therapy is recommended. Persons with BPD have extreme personality features related to psychotherapy. Changes in personality are investigated in association with symptoms such as suicidal imaginations. Trait change in BPD is examined after psychotherapy. 21 patients were assessed before and after therapy. Patients showed a decrease in depression and impulsiveness traits. Patients increased in 4 facets of conscientiousness. The individuals normalizing in personality exhibited decreased suicidality.

Petersen, Robyn ; Brakoulias, Vlasios ; Langdon, Robyn Comprehensive Psychiatry, Jan, 2016, Vol.64, p.12(10)[Peer Reviewed Journal]

Deficit mentalization is deemed to be the leading cause of BPD, but studies about have been little studies about it. Investigations were conducted through the administration of five theory of mind tasks to same groups of patients with BPD. There were no significant differences between the groups. It was discovered that increase in childhood punishment experience decreased adulthood mentalization ability on affective and cognitive tasks. As mentalization became more complex and required integration of multiple perspectives, the deficit in mentalization capacity became more evident.

Sousa-Ferreira, T. ; Ferreira, M.C. ; Ferreira, S. ; Cabral, T. European Psychiatry, March 28, 2015, Vol.30, p.1646[Peer Reviewed Journal]

Borderline personality disorder has been given more attention to personality disorder. The main goal is to clarify the aims, advantages, features, and objectives of psychotherapy with BPD patients. Psychodynamics, cognitive-behavior, and the supportive therapy are considered major psychotherapeutic approaches in the condition management. Under optimum circumstances, patients will improve slowly towards high levels of functionality.

Carrasco, José Luis ; Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro ; Díaz-Marsá, Marina ; Casado, Ana ; López-Ibor, Juan J. ; Arrazola, Juan ; Yus, Miguel Journal of Affective Disorders, July 2012, Vol.139(2), pp.149-153[Peer Reviewed

The prefrontal cortex is vital in the regulation o emotions and behaviors by controlling information processing and impulse generation. During the neuropsychological assessment, there has been a low prefrontal function in patients with BPD. Emotional and behavioral characteristics of BPD patient seem to be associated with damage at connectivity tracts in the brain. There is a reduced level of orbitofrontal functions in BPD patients. Clinical, neuropsychological and structural convergences and divergences between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder: A systematic review

Xenaki, Lida-Alkisti ; Pehlivanidis, Artemios Personality and Individual Differences, 2015, Vol.86, p.438(12)[Peer Reviewed Journal]

Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder(ADHD) symptoms overlap with borderline personality disorder (BPD). There exist clinical differences between the two conditions. ADHD exhibit a more different expressed symptoms with difficulty in inhibition control and dysfunction in ventrolateral prefrontal regions. BPD shows a more mixed picture of externalizing and interrelating clinical symptoms. It also exhibits emotional, cognitive interruption and dysfunction in the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal regions.


Hooley, J. M., & St Germain, S. A. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Linehan, M. M., Korslund, K. E., Harned, M. S., Gallop, R. J., Lungu, A., Neacsiu, A. D., ... & Murray-Gregory, A. M. (2015). Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis. JAMA psychiatry, 72(5), 475-482.

Hooley, J. M., & St Germain, S. A. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Stepp, S. D., Whalen, D. J., Scott, L. N., Zalewski, M., Loeber, R., & Hipwell, A. E. (2014). Reciprocal effects of parenting and borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 26(2), 361-378.

Bowen, M. (2013). Borderline personality disorder: clinicians' accounts of good practice. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 20(6), 491-498.

Baer, R. A. (Ed.). (2015). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. Academic Press.

April 19, 2023

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